Jane was morbidly obese. She had gastric by-pass surgery whereby her stomach was stapled such that it is now a very small pouch that can only hold a volume of 4oz at a time.
She now has to take B12 shots once a month. What might the cause of her B12 deficiency be??
Deficiency in parietal cells: they secrete intrinsic factor required for absorption of b12 in the stomach.
Decrease number of intrinsic cells
Give a reasonable mechanism for the development of high blood pressure.
Design a diuretic. Explain how it would work to increase urine volume.
By inhibiting the transport of Na+ out of the nephron.
Add a lot of caffeine to a drink to increase the amount of fluid that can filter across the renal corpuscle. Hormonal action is very important in determining concentration and volume. ADH and Aldosterone also helps the distal tubule and collecting duct to make urine more concentrated. You also want to make sure you dont decrease renal blood pressure then no filtration will occur.
Peter’s kidney function is greatly reduced. He has renal arteriosclerosis. He is
having trouble with his blood pressure.
What is the connection between blood pressure and kidney function??
The kidneys are vulnerable to changes in blood pressure: Low renal blood pressure= no filtration occurring.
Moreso, Innervation of the kidney is mainly stimulated by sympathetic input. Functions of the sympathetic innervation is regulating glomerular blood flow and pressure via the afferent and efferent arterioles. Thus if the renal arteries become
clogged with fatty plaques, the sympathetic stimulation to constrict the small
arteries will be greatly affected.
Paul has hepatitis C. His liver function is greatly reduced. Give 3 different symptoms that might occur as a result of his liver disease.
Cant store glucose as glycogen or synthesize and release cholesterol (Sign that Metabolic regulation is inefficient)
Inefficiency in making plasma proteins (albumins)
Bile production is scarce
Vibrio cholera is a bacterium that causes Cl- to be secreted into the lumen of the colon.
How will this affect stools??
Cl ion will be absorbed in the mucosal cells, with water following passively. Diarrhea will occur!
. Ralph eats 2 bags of salty potato chips. What hormone(s) might this affect and what
effect will occur? EXPLAIN
ADH because this hormone stimulates thirst and retention of water in the kidney. Also, Aldosterone will be turned on to conserve H2O. Lastly, ANP will be effected- it will be inhibited or turned down.
Desert animals need to conserve as much water as possible.
Design a nephron that will help to conserve as much water as possible. You may adjust any hormone levels that you feel would be helpful to conserve water.
Addison’s disease is the result of degeneration of the adrenal cortex. How would this condition affect blood pressure, blood volume and urine volume. Explain your answers.