Bio Chp 8 Final Review

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Bio Chp 8 Final Review
2012-05-30 20:26:46

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  1. What is a vaccine?
    • A
    • substance prepared from killed or weakened microorganisms that is introduced
    • into the body to produce immunity
  2. What type of bacteria is able to cause disease?
    Virulent Bacteria
  3. What is a bacteriophage?
    A virus that infects bacteria
  4. What is DNA and what is it made up of?
    A long molecule made of subunits called nucleotides that are linked together
  5. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
    A phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogenous base
  6. Whatis DNA and what is it made up of?
  7. What two parts of a nucleotide is the same for each nucleotide ina molecule of DNA?
    The sugar molecule and the phosphate group
  8. What are the four different types of DNA nitrogenous bases?
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • thymine
    • cytosine
  9. Adenine and guanine belong to what class of organic molecules?
  10. Thymine and Cytosine are what type of class that has a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms?
  11. What two scientists took X-ray diffraction photographs of the DNA molecule that suggested DNA resembled a tightly coiled helix?
    Wilkins and Franklin
  12. Watson and Cook used X-ray diffraction photographs to do what?
    Build a model of DNA with a double helix configuration
  13. How is the DNA double helix consisting of alternating sugar and phosphate units of purines and pyrimidines held together with?
    Hydrogen bonds
  14. Why is a pyrimidine always paired with a purine?
    Because that is how they form the hydrogen bond that holds them together and keeps an equal diameter of the DNA
  15. Which purines bond with which pyrimidines?
    • Adenine bonds with Thymine
    • Cytosine bonds with Guanine
  16. The process of synthesizing a new strand of DNA is called what?
    DNA replication
  17. The point at which the double helix separates is called what?
    Replication fork
  18. What is formed when the helicase begins separating the two strands in the middle of the DNA?
    Replication Bubble
  19. At the replication fork ensymes known as ___________ move along each strand of DNA adding nucleotides to exposed bases following the basic-pairing rules.
    DNA polymerase
  20. Eukaryotic organisms usually have many replication forks that begin in the midle andmove in what direction? What do they create?
    Both directions, replication bubbles
  21. What are genes frequently interrupted by?
    Introns which are long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information
  22. What are the nucleotide segments that code for amino acids called?
    Exons because they are expressed