Bio Chp 19 Final Review

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sydluvslife10
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156539
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Bio Chp 19 Final Review
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2012-05-30 19:53:21
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This makes no sense :(((
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  1. Orokaryotes bacteria are the planet's most ____________.
    abundant innhabitants
  2. What are the oldest organisms?
    Prokaryotes
  3. What are the two metabolically different groups of bacteria that evolved?
    • archaebacteria
    • eubacteria
  4. What are most archaebacteria today?
    methanogens
  5. What do methanogens do?
    use hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide to methane
  6. Whate type of anaerobes are methanogens?
    obligate anaerobes
  7. What are obligate anaerobes poisoned by?
    oxygen
  8. Where are methanogens found?
    • Swamps
    • Marshes
    • Digestive tracts of cows and other herbivores
  9. What are archaebacteria called?
    extreme halophiles
  10. Where do archaebacteria live?
    In very salty places such as the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake
  11. Where do thermoacidophiles grow?
    In hot, acidic environments such as the sulfur springs
  12. What do many eukaryotic cells contain?
    Other organelles thought to be descended from bacteria
  13. Based on the theory of ________________, what?
    endosymbiosis, chloroplasts in the cells of plants and algae are descendants of photosynthetic prokaryotes that were incorporated into a larger host cell
  14. What are thought to be the result of endosymbiosis?
    Mitochondria
  15. What are mitochondria thoght to be the result of?
    endosymbiosis
  16. What is the simplest and most primitive method of reproduction?
    Asexual reproduction
  17. How and in what environment is asexual reproduction advantateous?
    In a stable environment, enabling organisms to produce many well adapted offspring in a short period of time
  18. What does an organism that reproduces asexually not need to do?
    Expend energy producing gametes or finding a mate
  19. What happens in budding?
    A small part of the parent's body grows into a new individual
  20. What is fragmentation and what organisms can do it?
    The breaking of the body into several small pieces (sponge or echinoderms)
  21. What is an advantage of sexual reproduction?
    Provides a means of shuffling genetic material, quickly generating different combinations of genes among the individuals
  22. What has been a principal factor in the evolutionary success of eukaryotes?
    The rapid generation of genetic diversity produced by sexual reproduction
  23. What is the raw material for evolution?
    genetic diversity
  24. What are the three types of life cycles that eukaryotes are characterized by?
    • zygotic meiosis
    • gametic meiosis
    • sporic meiosis
  25. What is zygotic meiosis?
    the simplest of sexual life cycles, the zygote is the only diploid cell and it undergoes meiosis immediately after it is formed so haploid cells occupy the major portion of the life cylce
  26. Where is zygotic meiosis found?
    In many algae
  27. What is gametic meiosis?
    The gametes are the only haploid cells; all of the other cells are diploid and meiosis produces gametes
  28. Where is gametic meiosis found?
    In most animals (humans)
  29. What is sporic meiosis?
    • Plants have a life cycle that regularly alternates between a haploid phase a diploid phase
    • diploid phase: sporophyte produces spores
    • haploid phase: gametophyte produces gametes
  30. What is a multicellular organism composed of?
    Many cells that are permanently asociated with one another and that integrate their activities
  31. What is the main advantage of multicellularity?
    It allows for specilization
  32. What do distinct types of cells form?
    Tissues
  33. What are tissues?
    Groups of cells with a common structure and function
  34. What are different tissues organized into?
    Different organs
  35. What are organs?
    Structures with specific functions
  36. When has multicellularity evolved many times?
    In times among the protists
  37. What are the three groups of photosynthetic protists that have species with multicellularity?
    • red algae
    • brown algae
    • green algae
  38. What is taxonomy?
    The science of classifying and naming organisms
  39. How established binomial nomenclature?
    Linnaeus
  40. What did Linnaeus establish?
    Binomial Nomenclature
  41. What is a scientific name?
    A unique two-word name
  42. What is teh scientific name composed of?
    The first word (genus) and the second word (species)
  43. What did Linnaeus base the system of classification on?
    An organism's form and structure organized into a hierarchical system of groups that increase in inclusiveness
  44. What is a species?
    A group of individuals that can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring
  45. How are hybrids produced?
    When individuals of different species interbreed
  46. What are the six kingdoms all living things are classified into?
    • Archaebacteria
    • Eubacteria
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  47. About how many species have beeen named?
    1.5-2.2 milion
  48. How many kinds of organisms do scientists predict there are?
    At least 10 million
  49. What happens in convergent evolution?
    Organisms evolve similar feature independently , often because they live in similar habitats
  50. What is a result of convergent evolution?
    wings
  51. What are similar features that evolved through convergent evolution called?
    Analogous characters
  52. What are analogous characters?
    similar features that evovled through convergent evolution

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