Meeting of all Mongol chieftans at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected.
Titile of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided in to units of 1,000, 100, and 10.
Ruler of Golden Horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandson's; rsponsible for invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as Khagan of the Mongols following his father's death.
One of the four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan's death, originally ruled by his grandson Batu; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.
Battle of Kulikova
In legneds popular from 12th to 17th century, a mythicla Christian monarch whose kingdom was cut off from Europe by Muslim conquests; CHinggis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler.
A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
Grandson of CHinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
Present-Day Beijing; so-called when Kubilai Khan ruled China.
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interestes of Buddhists in China; indictave of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese; died c. 1281.
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule.
White Lotus Society
The given name of the Hongwu emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty.
Also known as Tamerlane; leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360's from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.