Chemistry unit 3

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Author:
bonganator
ID:
156616
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Chemistry unit 3
Updated:
2012-05-31 10:21:04
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chemistry year 12
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Description:
unit 3 exams review acids and bases/
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  1. List common acids (6)
    • Hydrochloric acid - HCl
    • Sulfuric acid - H2SO4
    • Nitric acid - HNO3
    • Phosphoric acid - H3PO4
    • Ethanoic Acid - CH3COOH
    • Carbonic Acid - H2CO3
  2. acid + metal
    • salt + hydrogen
    • not Cu, Hg or Ag
  3. Common bases
    • Ammonia - NH3
    • Metal Hydroxides
  4. Alkalis
    bases that dissolve in water (group 1 hydroxides)
  5. An acid
    is a proton donor
  6. A base
    Is a proton acceptor
  7. Behavious of acids and bases
    • isonisation - acid donates a proton to water, water acts as base and forms a hydronium H3O+
    • Hydrolysis - anion reacts with water to produce OH-, cation reacts with water to produce H3O+
    • Dissociation - when ionic base dissolves in water, it separates into ions
  8. strengths of acids/bases
    ability to readily donate or accept protons
  9. concentrations of acids and bases
    relates to the amount of the substance that is dissolved in a given volume of water
  10. strong acids
    • nitric
    • sulfuric
    • hydrochloric
  11. weak acid
    acetic/ethanoic acid
  12. strong bases
    • sodium hydroxide
    • potassium hydroxide
  13. weak bases
    ammonia
  14. indicator
    • weak acid/base
    • different colour in acidic/basic solutions
  15. OIL RIG
    • Oxidation is loss .... of electrons
    • Reduction is gain ... of electrons
  16. Oxidation
    a substance that is oxidised is the one that loses electrons and is thus an electon donor
  17. Reduction
    A substrance that is reduced is the one that gains electrons and is thus an electron acceptor
  18. Oxidant
    • Causes oxidation of another substance
    • it itself undergoes reduction
  19. Reductant
    • causes reduction of another substance
    • it itself undergoes oxidation
  20. Elements
    Cu, O2
    ON - 0
  21. simple ions
    Cl-, S2-
    ON - charge of ion
  22. hydrogen
    • +1
    • -1 in metal hydrides (NaH)
  23. Oxygen
    • -2
    • -1 in peroxides (H2O2, BaO2)
  24. electronegative element
    • The most electronegative element in a compound has the negative oxidation number
    • F>O>Cl>N
  25. F and Cl
    -1
  26. Group 1 metals
    +1
  27. Group 2 metals
    +2
  28. Balancing half equations
    • key elemnet
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
    • charge
    • states
  29. Commonly used oxidants
    • permanganate ion (MnO4-)
    • dichromate ion (Cr2O7-)
    • iodine (I2)
  30. Commonly used reductants
    • thiosulfate ion (S2O3 2-)
    • oxalate ion (C2O42-)

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