BIOL 100

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  1. Chracteristics of "Life" (7)
    Living things . . .

    1. contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids

    2. are composed of cells

    3. grow and reproduce

    4. metabolize - use energy and raw materials

    5. respond to their environment

    6. maintain homeostasis

    7. populations of living things evolve and have adaptive traits
  2. Cell
    smallest structure that shows all the characteristics of life
  3. Metabolism
    the sum of all chemical reactions within the living cells
  4. Homeostasis
    the ability of living things to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in all levels of body organization
  5. Adaptive Trait
    a characteristic (structure/function/behavior) of an organism (arising from natural selection) that makes an individual better able to survive and reproduce in its natural environment
  6. Population
    a group of potentially interacting individuals of the same species living in a distinct geographic area
  7. Community
    an assortment of organisms of various species interacting in a defined habitat
  8. Ecosystem
    all the organisms living in a certain area that can potentially interact, together with their physical environment
  9. Biosphere
    the part of the Earth in which life is found. It encompasses all of the Earth's living organisms
  10. Science
    a systematic approach to acquiring knowledge through carefully documented investigation and experimentation
  11. Scientific Method
    a procedure underlying most scientific investigations that involves observation, formulating a hypothesis, making predictions, experimenting to test the predictions, and drawing conclusions.
  12. Hypothesis
    a testable explanation for a specific set of observations that serves as the basis for experimentation
  13. Controlled Experiment
    an experiment in which the subjects are divided into two groups, usually called the control group and the experimental group. Ideally, the groups differ in only the factor(s) of interest
  14. Controll Group
    the group (between 2) in which the variable is unaltered for comparison to the other group
  15. Experimental Group
    the group (between 2) in which the variable is altered for comparison to the other group
  16. Variable
    in a controlled experiment, the factor that differs between the control group and experimental groups
  17. Conclusion
    an interpretation of the data collected in an experiment
  18. Statistical Significance
    in a scientific experiment, a measure of the probability that the results are due to chance
  19. Theory
    a broad-ranging explanation for some aspect of the universe that is consistent with many observations and experiments
  20. Inductive Reasoning
    a logical progression of thought processing from the specific to the general.
  21. Deductive Reasoning
    a logical progression of thought proceeding from the general to the specific. uses "if ... then" logic
  22. Placebo
    in a controlled experiment to test the effectiveness of a drug, it is a substance that appears to be identical to a drug but has no effect on the condition for which it is taken
  23. Informed Consent
    a document that a person must sign before participating in an experiment that lists all possible harmful consequences that might result from participation
  24. Epidemiological Study
    examines patterns within populations to find a correlation between a variable and its suspected effects
  25. Double-Blind Experiment
    Experiment where neither the participants nor the researchers know who is given the real treatment
  26. 3 Trial Phases
    Phase I: determine whether the drug is safe for humans

    Phase II: whether it works for its intended purpose

    Phase III: whether it is more effective than existing treatments
Card Set
BIOL 100
CH1. Humans in the World of Biology
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