learning that 1 stimulus signals the arrival of another stimulus
Ex: 1st stim: dogs salivated to the sound of tone
2nd stim: bc they they learned to expect food in their mouth after hearing tone.
Why did the dogs salivate when the meat powder was put in the mouth of the dog?
reflexive stimulus- food in mouth
automatic response- you salivate
the response automatically elicited by the UCS is referred to as this
no learning is necessary for stimulus to elicit the response
once conditioning (dog salivating to sound of tone b4 meat powder is put in mouth) occurs, the neural stimulus is
the CS remains on until agter the UCS is presented so that the 2 stimuli occur at the same time
Period of time btwn turning off the CS and the onset of the UCS(called the trace interval) when neither stimulus is present
(in classical conditioning)
acquiring a new response (the CR) to the conditioned stimulus
extinction (in classical conditioning)
the diminishing of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery (in classical conditioning)
A partial recovery in strength of the conditioned response following a break during extinction training
elicitation of the conditioned response by stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (the more the similar the stronger the response)
elicitation of the conditioned response only by the conditioned stimulus or only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioned stimulus
learning to associate behaviors with their consequences
behaviors that are reinforced
lead to satisfying consequences
will be strengthened
behaviors that are punished
lead to unsatisfying consequences
will be weakened
satisfying consequences will lead you to do it again and unsatisfying consequences will lead you to no do it again
law of effect __developed by thorndike
any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tend to be repeated, and any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences not to be repeated
defined as a stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response
a stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response
defined as the process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation of a reinforcer following the response
process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher following the response
Skinner, the most influential all of behaviorists redefined the law of effect in more objective terms
learning through reinforcement and punishment
EX: if you operantly conditioned your dog to sit by giving it a food treat each time she sat down, the food treat is the REINFORCER....the process of increasing the dogs sitting behavior by using the reinforcer would be called ....
having a delay btwn a behavior and its consequences yield to making it difficult to condition
the word "positive"
means that a stimulus is presented
the word "negative"
means that a stimulus is removed
two types of stimuli
appetitive and aversive
a stimulus that the animal or human finds pleasant
a stimulus that the animal or human finds unpleasant
food, money, and good grades are all examples of ...
strong electric shocks, bad grades, and sickness are all examples of...
In positive reinforcement
an appetitve stimulus is presented
EX: praising a child for doing chores
In positve punishment
an aversive stimulus is presented
EX: spanking a child for not obeying the rules
In negative reinforcement
an aversive stimulus is removed
EX: taking Advil when you have a headache
In negative punishment
an appetitive stimulus is removed
EX: taking away a teens driving privileges after she breaks curfew
is innately reinforcing (means that the reinforcing property of the stimulus does not have to be learned)
food and water are exs
is not innately reinforcer BT gains its reinforcing property through learning. **most reinforcers fall into this category
Ex:money, good grades and applause
the application of conditioning principles to eliminate undesirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior
shaping (in operant conditioning)
train the animal to make the response they want by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response.
responding in an operant conditioning experiment is depicted in a cumulative record
is a record of the total number of responses over time
acquisition (in oc)
refers to the strengthening of the reinforced operant response
extinction (in oc )
the diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced..when the record goes flat its extinction has occurred
spontaneous recovery (in oc )
temporary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training
discriminative stimulus (in oc)
the stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced
stimulus discrimination (in oc)
learning to give the operant response only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus
the reinforcement of every response is called ...
a continuous schedule of reinforcement
in real life we experience partial schedules of reinforcement
in which a response is only reinforced part of the time
partial reinforcement schedules leads to...
partial reinforcement effect
partial reinforcement effect
finding that operant responses that are reinforced on partial schedules are more resistant to extinction thatn those reinforced on a continuous schedule
fixed ratio schedule
a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses are made
variable ratio schedule
the # of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each trial but averages to be a certain number across trials
fixed interval schedule
a reinforcer is delivered following the first response after a set interval of time has elapsed.
variable interval schedule
a partial schedule of reinforcement in which the time that must elapse on each trial before a response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer varies from trial to trial bt averages to a set time across trials
the set of internal and external factors that energize our behavior and direct it toward goals
one explanation of motivation is : drive reduction theory
it proposes that first a bodily need such as hunger creates a state of bodily tension called a drive...then motivated behavior works to reduce this drive by getting food to cut need and return to balanced internal state
another explanation of motivation is : the incentive theory
proposes that we are pulled into action by incentives, external environmental stimuli that do not involve drive reduction ..money is an incentive for almost all of us.
last explanation of motivation : the arousal theory (our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal which varies with ppl)
extends the importance of a balanced internal environment in drive reduction theory to include our level of physiological arousal and its regulation.
a law describing the relationship btwn the amt of arousal and the performance quality on a task...^ arousal up to some optimal level ^ performance quality on a task>>>> but ^ arousal past this point is detrimental to performance
Yerkes- Dodson law
the desire to perform behavior to obtain an external reinforcer or to avoid external aversive stimulus