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  1. Classical conditioning
    • learning that 1 stimulus signals the arrival of another stimulus
    • Ex: 1st stim: dogs salivated to the sound of tone
    • 2nd stim: bc they they learned to expect food in their mouth after hearing tone.
  2. Why did the dogs salivate when the meat powder was put in the mouth of the dog?
    Reflexive Response
  3. unconditional stimulus
    • reflexive stimulus- food in mouth
    • automatic response- you salivate
  4. unconditioned response
    the response automatically elicited by the UCS is referred to as this
  5. no learning is necessary for stimulus to elicit the response
  6. once conditioning (dog salivating to sound of tone b4 meat powder is put in mouth) occurs, the neural stimulus is
    conditioned stimulus
  7. Delayed Conditioning
    the CS remains on until agter the UCS is presented so that the 2 stimuli occur at the same time
  8. Period of time btwn turning off the CS and the onset of the UCS(called the trace interval) when neither stimulus is present
    Trace conditioning
  9. aquisition
    • (in classical conditioning)
    • acquiring a new response (the CR) to the conditioned stimulus
  10. extinction (in classical conditioning)
    the diminishing of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus
  11. spontaneous recovery (in classical conditioning)
    A partial recovery in strength of the conditioned response following a break during extinction training
  12. stimulus generalization
    elicitation of the conditioned response by stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (the more the similar the stronger the response)
  13. stimulus discrimination
    elicitation of the conditioned response only by the conditioned stimulus or only by a small set of highly similar stimuli that includes the conditioned stimulus
  14. learning to associate behaviors with their consequences
    operant conditioning
  15. behaviors that are reinforced
    lead to satisfying consequences
    will be strengthened
  16. behaviors that are punished
    lead to unsatisfying consequences
    will be weakened
  17. satisfying consequences will lead you to do it again and unsatisfying consequences will lead you to no do it again
  18. law of effect __developed by thorndike
    any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tend to be repeated, and any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences not to be repeated
  19. defined as a stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response
  20. a stimulus that decreases the probability of a prior response
  21. defined as the process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation of a reinforcer following the response
  22. process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher following the response
  23. Skinner, the most influential all of behaviorists redefined the law of effect in more objective terms
    learning through reinforcement and punishment
  24. EX: if you operantly conditioned your dog to sit by giving it a food treat each time she sat down, the food treat is the REINFORCER....the process of increasing the dogs sitting behavior by using the reinforcer would be called ....
  25. having a delay btwn a behavior and its consequences yield to making it difficult to condition
  26. the word "positive"
    means that a stimulus is presented
  27. the word "negative"
    means that a stimulus is removed
  28. two types of stimuli
    appetitive and aversive
  29. a stimulus that the animal or human finds pleasant
    appetitive stimulus
  30. a stimulus that the animal or human finds unpleasant
    aversive stimulus
  31. food, money, and good grades are all examples of ...
    appetitve stuimuli
  32. strong electric shocks, bad grades, and sickness are all examples of...
    aversice stimuli
  33. In positive reinforcement
    • an appetitve stimulus is presented
    • EX: praising a child for doing chores
  34. In positve punishment
    • an aversive stimulus is presented
    • EX: spanking a child for not obeying the rules
  35. In negative reinforcement
    • an aversive stimulus is removed
    • EX: taking Advil when you have a headache
  36. In negative punishment
    • an appetitive stimulus is removed
    • EX: taking away a teens driving privileges after she breaks curfew
  37. primary reinforcer
    • is innately reinforcing (means that the reinforcing property of the stimulus does not have to be learned)
    • food and water are exs
  38. secondary reinforcer
    • is not innately reinforcer BT gains its reinforcing property through learning. **most reinforcers fall into this category
    • Ex:money, good grades and applause
  39. token modification
    the application of conditioning principles to eliminate undesirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior
  40. shaping (in operant conditioning)
    train the animal to make the response they want by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response.
  41. responding in an operant conditioning experiment is depicted in a cumulative record
  42. cumulative record
    is a record of the total number of responses over time
  43. acquisition (in oc)
    refers to the strengthening of the reinforced operant response
  44. extinction (in oc )
    the diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced..when the record goes flat its extinction has occurred
  45. spontaneous recovery (in oc )
    temporary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinction training
  46. discriminative stimulus (in oc)
    the stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced
  47. stimulus discrimination (in oc)
    learning to give the operant response only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus
  48. the reinforcement of every response is called ...
    (in oc)
    a continuous schedule of reinforcement
  49. in real life we experience partial schedules of reinforcement
    (in oc)
    in which a response is only reinforced part of the time
  50. partial reinforcement schedules leads to...
    (in oc)
    partial reinforcement effect
  51. partial reinforcement effect
    (in oc)
    finding that operant responses that are reinforced on partial schedules are more resistant to extinction thatn those reinforced on a continuous schedule
  52. fixed ratio schedule
    (in oc)
    a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses are made
  53. variable ratio schedule
    (in oc)
    • the # of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each trial but averages to be a certain number across trials
    • varies...every time
  54. fixed interval schedule
    a reinforcer is delivered following the first response after a set interval of time has elapsed.
  55. variable interval schedule
    (in oc)
    a partial schedule of reinforcement in which the time that must elapse on each trial before a response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer varies from trial to trial bt averages to a set time across trials
  56. the set of internal and external factors that energize our behavior and direct it toward goals
  57. one explanation of motivation is : drive reduction theory
    it proposes that first a bodily need such as hunger creates a state of bodily tension called a drive...then motivated behavior works to reduce this drive by getting food to cut need and return to balanced internal state
  58. another explanation of motivation is : the incentive theory
    proposes that we are pulled into action by incentives, external environmental stimuli that do not involve drive reduction is an incentive for almost all of us.
  59. last explanation of motivation : the arousal theory (our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal which varies with ppl)
    extends the importance of a balanced internal environment in drive reduction theory to include our level of physiological arousal and its regulation.
  60. a law describing the relationship btwn the amt of arousal and the performance quality on a task...^ arousal up to some optimal level ^ performance quality on a task>>>> but ^ arousal past this point is detrimental to performance
    Yerkes- Dodson law
  61. extrinsic motivation
    (in oc)
    the desire to perform behavior to obtain an external reinforcer or to avoid external aversive stimulus
  62. intrinsic mtvn
    (in oc)
    the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
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