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Functions. Why do we need it? Deficiency.
- Ascorbic acid
- Electron donor for 8 mammalian enzymes: collagen synthesis, bile acid formation, NA synthesis, immune function
- Antioxidant and free radical scavenger with chain breaking properties - promotes iron absorption and prevention of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach
- L-gulonolactone oxidase: is absent
B1: functions, deficiency
- Aldehyde transfer: carbohydrate metabolism, carboxylation, conenzyme in Acetyl CoA formation, nerve function
- Beriberi: oedema due to cardiac insufficiency. Paralysis due to damaged peripheral nerves.
- Redox: part of FAD
- Redox: part of NAD and NADP
- Pellagra: sunburn like skin and mouth lesions
- Amino group transfer: cofactor in aa metabolism and glycogen phosphorylase reacion, synthesis of NA and serotonin, haem
- One carbon transder: coenzyme in DNA and aa synthesis, erythropoesis
- Anaemia: important in pregnancy - macrolytic anaemia
- Alkylation: coenzyme in folate metabolism, Met synthesis
- Deficient in vegans
- Vision: 11-cis-retinal in visual transduction
- Immunity: regulation of proliferation and activation of lymphocytes
- Embryonic development: Hox gene expression
- Gene transcription: acts like steroid hormones, binding to retinoic acid receptors (RAR and RXR) as TFs - therapy and chemoprevention eg promyelocytic leukaemia
- Antioxidants: provitamin A carotenoids eg B-carotene are powerful free radical scavengers
- Deficiency: common, esp in developing world. Ocular problems (Bitot's spots, xerophalia), depressed immune function. Causes 1.4 million(/2m) child blindness.
- Calciferol (Active is calcitirol)
- Hormone rather than vitamin
- Synthesised in skin by UV conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol.
- Deficiency: osteoporosis, rickets
- Calcium homeostasis
- Insulin production
- Immune function regulation
- Blood pressure regulation
- Activate apoptosis and inhibit angiogenesis in cancer
- 8 naturally occuring forms - a-tocopherol and a-tocotrienol most common in diet (but 4 of each)
- Chain breaking antioxidant in lipid membranes
- Sperm production and egg implantation
- Blood coagulation
- Metabolic pathways esp in bone
- Produced by bacteria in bowel