Patho & Pharmo Week 5 Cellular Adaptations

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Patho & Pharmo Week 5 Cellular Adaptations
2012-05-31 22:03:48
Cellular Adaptations

Cellular Adaptations
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  1. When the cell is under stress what are the positive and negative outcomes?
    Homeostasis brings the cell back to normal and disease has a negative effect on the cell meaning it is unable to adapt and results in cell death
  2. What does Atrophy do to the cell?
    Decreases in size. This can be from disuse; denervation or decrease in endocrine stimulation. Decreased nutrition or Ischemia.
  3. Describe cellular Hypertrophy?
    This is an increase in cell size, it can be in the skeletal muscle (pumping iron) or cardiac (Enlargement of LV but less contraction space)
  4. I am overgrowth of epithelial tissue. An example is a wart?
  5. I am a result of chronic irritation/inflammation from an environmental factor. I can the cell type but I am reversible.
    Cellular metaplasia
  6. I am a precursor to cancer. A description of the cells is that they vary in size and shape also organisation?
    Cellular dysplasia
  7. Name the five things that can cause cell injury or cellular death?
    • Physical agents mechanical – Impact injuries; temperature or electrical
    • Radiation – Ionizing or non ironizing
    • Chemical – Drugs and Lead toxicity
    • Biological – Virus
    • Nutritional – Over (Type 2 diabetes) or under (Anaemia)
  8. What is apoptosis?
    Programmed cell death, controlled cell destruction involving the removal of worn cells
  9. How long does RBC survive for?
    40 days
  10. I am unregulated enzymatic digestion of cell components. Phagocyte cells in the form of inflammation are activated to clean up. What am I?
  11. Name the 3 types of necrosis?
    • Liquefactive - Abscess
    • Coagulative - MI
    • Caseous – Tuberculosis
  12. What diversion is inputted into the CNS from the periphery?
  13. Name the two stimuli that feed into the afferent division?
    Sensory and Visceral
  14. What two organs are parts of the central nervous system?
    Brain and the spinal cord
  15. Which division does the output from the CNS go to?
    Efferent division
  16. Which nervous systems does the efferent division supply?
    Somatic & Autonomic
  17. What action does the somatic nervous system control?
    The motor neurons that fire the skeletal muscles.
  18. I am known as the fight or flight response and explain what I am and do?
    Sympathetic nervous system –Increases mental alertness, increases metabolism, decreases digestion and urinary. Respiration / airway open to help increase the flow of oxygen. The Heart rate & BP increase pumping the extra oxygen to the areas required. I am located in the spinal cord the thoracic & lumber region. I supply tissues and organs with adrenaline & noradrenaline.
  19. I am known as the rest & digest nervous system. I am located in the cranial nerves & sacral region of the spinal cord. I release acetylcholine on targets.
    What nervous system am I?
    Para-sympathetic nervous system – Decrease metabolism, constrict airway, decrease HR and BP. Increase salivary & digestion secretion and gut motility
  20. I control cardiac, secretory gland and smooth muscle regulation to maintain homeostasis. I am involuntary.
    Autonomic Nervous system
  21. In reference to the SNS, if the action I required was to increase the HR which receptor would need to be activated?
  22. I am activated by the B1 receptor and I increase renin release where am I located?
  23. The B2 receptor is activated by the SNS. My action is Dilation name where I am in the body?
    Arterioles in the heart, lungs & SM and also the bronchi
  24. Although I am receptor responsible for dilation in the arterioles and bronchi I also have an effect on the uterus, what is that action?
  25. I‘m the receptor that is activated during the fight or flight response. I increase pupil size, reduce voiding and BF to the GIT. I also constrict the arterioles in the skin, viscera and mucous membranes.
  26. During male arousal which two receptors are activated and controlled by which nervous system?
    • Erection is controlled by the muscarinic receptor & the PNS
    • Ejaculation is controlled by the a1 receptor & the SNS
  27. I am the receptor that is activated by the PNS