History of Rome

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  1. Apennine Mountains
    • Dominate the Italian Peninsula
    • North West end they meet the Alps
    • separate the Po Valley from Etruria
    • reaches a height of 10,000 feet in some places
  2. Etruria
    • land of the ancient Etruscans
    • northernmost region of ancient italy
    • bounded by the Arno and Tiber rivers
    • was one of the earliest centers of urban life
  3. Latium
    • Middle region of ancient Italy
    • stretches from the Tiber river to the area around Naples
    • Center of the area centered on 7 volcanic hills
    • comprised of fertile hills making it good for agriculture
  4. Campania
    • Southernmost region of Ancient Italy
    • abundance of fertile plains good for agriculture
    • Etruscans and Samnites lived in the region
    • show traces of Villanovan culture
  5. Villanovan Culture
    • bi-mixed economy comprised of iron goods and agriculture
    • trading hub for the north
    • no warrior class only citizen militia
    • remained separated from the Etruscans
  6. Latial Culture
    • Were held together by a common religion
    • generally smaller than their Etruscan counterparts
    • practiced both inhumation and cremation
    • were held together by a common language
  7. Phoenicians
    • Coastal regions of the eastern shore of the Mediterranean were their homeland
    • first traces of their civilization begin around second millenium BC
    • long distance trade by land and sea was important to them
    • would come to be Rome's greatest rival
  8. Magna Graecia
    • means Great Greece
    • Cumae was the first settlement that was founded here
    • also comprised of the eastern, SE, and northern coasts of Sicily
    • developed institutions that led to the formation of city states
  9. Phalanx
    • Dense formation of fighters
    • emphasized formal battles over raids
    • favored large formations over small ones
    • resembled a box in which men were protected on all sides by those around him
  10. Amphorae
    • pottery vessels
    • made in etruscan coastal centers
    • in the late seventh and sixth centuries
    • contained wine and olive oil
  11. Etruscans
    • cities possesed common languages
    • followed similar social and religious organizations
    • shared a sense of cultural identity
    • were never united politically
  12. Luscius Tarquinius Priscus
    • The first Etruscan king of Rome
    • Father of the second Etruscan king of Rome
  13. Quintus Fabius Pictor
    • Roman historian
    • wrote the first History of Rome
    • written from the foundation of Rome to 200
    • written in Greek not Latin
  14. Servius Tullius
    • Created the Roman Census
    • Created Roman Coinage
    • Direct taxation of Roman Citizens
    • And a military stipend
  15. Aeneas
    • The legend gave Romans a past
    • It connected them to a present
    • gave them a sense of destiny
    • gave romans their own mythology
  16. Tarquinius Priscus
    • Began the Etruscan cultural dominance of Rome
    • added 100 men to the Senate
    • First king to establish games for the romans
    • was assasinated by the sons of Marcius
  17. Comitia Curiata
    • Oldest Roman Assembly
    • composed of all men capable of bearing arms
    • was replaced by the comitia centuriata
    • passive institution were called together to listen to the king
  18. Law of the 12 Tables
    • forms the basis for public and private law
    • defines offenses against the community
    • permitting trade organizations
    • stated that excessive displays of wealth were against the law
  19. Rights Of Connubium
    • concerned Roman Family law
    • granted the right to marry other citizens
    • allowed one to enter the roman religious community
    • was held by the Latin Colonies
  20. Rights of Commercium
    • Roman Contract law
    • was held by the latin colonies
    • granted the right to free slaves
    • provided forms to buy, sell, borrow, and rent goods
  21. Ius Migrationis
    • Gave people the right to become citizens of a state by residing there
    • achieved formal expression by the fourth century
    • conferred a sense of privelege
    • was held by the Latins
  22. Military Tribunes
    • appointed by consuls
    • served in groups of 6 typically
    • were men of senatorial status
    • were appointed by the senate
  23. Dictator
    • Appointed during times of national emergency
    • appointment lasted 6 months
    • was bestowed imperium by the consul
    • was appointed by praetor or consul
  24. Decemvirs
    • Commision of 10 men
    • were to hold supreme power for 1 year
    • were to produce a body of laws to regulate the republic
    • resulted in the laws of the twelve tables
  25. Consul
    • established in the republic
    • conferred upon 2 men
    • served a period of 1 year
    • were elected by the Comitia Centuriata
  26. Sabines
    • resided in the Appenine region
    • remembered when the sabine women were stolen from a banquet by Romulus to populate rome
    • fought in the Samnite wars
    • were defeated by Tarquinius Superbus
  27. Struggle of the Orders
    • Political Struggle between the Patricians and Plebians
    • plebians were seeking political equality
    • figured largely in constitution of the Roman republic
    • occured when the patricians were warring with two tribes and the plebians left the city
  28. Patricians and Plebians
    • Patricians were aristocracy
    • Plebians were the common people
    • Plebs were free, land owning citizens
    • patricians were the wealthy elite of Rome
  29. Veii
    • An Etruscan City
    • became a powerful city state
    • was transformed into Roman territory
    • located 10 miles south of Rome
  30. The Gauls
    • Dominated the valley of the Po River
    • originated in Central Europe
    • did not have urban culture
    • culture was focused around aristocratic families
  31. Marcus Furius Camillius
    • Hero of the war against Veii
    • hero of the recovery after the sack of Rome
    • was dictator
    • commanded the roman army that captured Veii
  32. Licinian-Sextian reforms
    • fixed the office of consul as the highest in the city
    • permitted plebians to compete for the office of consul
    • over time established that one of the 2 consuls had to be plebian
    • created a new political elite composed of both patrician and plebian
  33. Praetor
    • supreme judge in the roman judicial system
    • later posessed imperium
    • was inferior to the conuls
    • handled the most serious cases of the empire
  34. Imperium
    • right to command
    • has strong religious associations for romans
    • provided the basis for magistrates to lead armies
    • applies to the civil and military forms of governance
  35. Auspicium
    • held by the roman kings
    • later by Consuls and Praetors
    • translates as the right to determine the will of the gods
    • conveyed a sense of authority upon the holder
  36. Curule Aediles
    • held by 4 persons either pleb or patriarch
    • were responsible for the maintenance of temples and city streets
    • regulated public festivals
    • were also given power to restore public order
  37. Quaestors
    • Financial officers of the Republic
    • lowest magistrates office
    • oversaw funds generals took on campaigns
    • ex-quaestors usually became members of the senate
  38. Lex Hortensia
    • sponsored by Qunitus Hortensius
    • gave plebians the right to enact laws binding on the entire community
    • freed plebians from having to seek senatorial approval
    • resulted from the class struggle between the plebs and patricians
  39. Censors
    • Only office that was not annual lasting 18 months
    • supervised the census
    • In charge of the membership list of the senate
    • enforced the moral code of the Romans
  40. Senate
    • composed of aristocrats
    • held power to ratify resolutions of the popular assembly
    • legislated law
    • Were created to advise the king of Rome
  41. Equites
    • Calvary officers
    • Had rights to vote first in the assembly
    • constituted the lower of the 2 aristocratic classes
    • positions were passed from father to son
  42. Concilium Plebis
    • The Plebian assembly
    • 2 are elected each year
    • responsible for protecting the righs of the plebs
    • pass laws that will benefit the plebian people
  43. ludi Romani
    • The Roman Games
    • were established by Tarquinius Priscus
    • were managed by the Aediles
    • were held in honor of Jupiter
  44. Pontifex Maximus
    • Most powerful religious official in Rome
    • Elected official
    • controlled the religious callendar of the romans
    • In charge of the College of Pontiffs
  45. Augurs
    • Interpret the will of the gods was his Job
    • used birds to achieve this
    • declined by First Century B.C.
    • held by both plebs and patricians
  46. Vestal Virgins
    • Priestess of Vesta
    • took a vow of chastity
    • Maintained the sacred fire of Vesta
    • worshipped the hearth and home
  47. Flamen Dialis
    • high priest of Jupiter
    • composed of 15 priests
    • Created by Numa Pompilius
    • served the three gods of the archaic triad
  48. The samnite Wars
    • first from 333-341
    • second from 327-303
    • 3rd war from 298-290
    • resulted in rome being master of the north and central parts of Italy
  49. The Latin Wars
    • resulted from conflict between rome and the latin league
    • rome won the war
    • the latin areas were colonized
    • Rome dissolved the league
  50. Municipia Sine Suffragio
    • roman citizens without the right to vote
    • held only private citizenship rights
    • were expected to fight in times of war
    • were second in line of the roman commonwealth
  51. Pyrrhus
    • Greek General and King
    • First battle the Romans ever had against the Greeks
    • won a battle but lost 4000 irreplacable troops
    • was defeated at Asculum
  52. novi homines
    • translated as new citizen
    • were given to men who had never held office before
    • allowed more families to better themselves
  53. First Punic War
    • was between 264-241
    • war between Rome and the Carthaginians
    • was fought over the city of Messana
    • beginning of Roman Imperialism in the Mediterranean
  54. Gaius Duilius
    • Defeated the Carthaginian Navy
    • led romes first naval victory
    • fought during the First punic war
    • was elected censor
  55. Second Punic War
    • fought between 218-201
    • fought over Spain in which carthage expands into spain
    • Hannibal invades Sagramentum an ally of spain
    • Rome makes carthage pay a 50 year war indemnity
  56. Hannibal the Great
    • Greek General
    • Son of Hamilcar Barca
    • wanted to destroy the Italian Confederation
    • Hannibal defeated at the Battle of Zama
  57. Treaty of Ebro
    • signed before the second punic war
    • states that rome will stay north of the ebro
    • States that carthage will stay south of the Ebro
    • Ebro is a River in Spain a natural boundary
  58. The battle of the Trebia
    • Battle in which the Romans lost around 40,000 soldiers
    • was led by Hannibal the great
    • first major battle of the second punic war
    • fought in december 218
  59. The battle of Lake Trasimmene
    • Battle in which rome was defeated by carthage
    • battle was fought during the second punic war
    • was fought in june 217
    • one of the largest ambushes in military history
  60. Fabius the Delayer
    • Roman general and statesman
    • appointed dictator after the battle of Lake Trasimene
    • refused to meet hannibal in direct battle
    • instead instituted a scorched earth policy to defeat carthage by attrition
  61. Cannae
    • Greatest military defeat in Roman history
    • Occured in 216
    • completely exhausted the romans
    • capua and other italian city states defected to the Carthaginian side
  62. magna mater
    • Means Great Mother
    • was a cult image
    • brought from asia minor to rome
    • during the second punic war
  63. Publius Scipio
    • General and Statesman
    • served as consul
    • fought the carthaginians during the second punic war
    • was defeated and died in 211
  64. Battle of Zama
    • Marked the end of the Second Punic War
    • Roman army defeated the Carthaginian Army
    • Fought in October 202
    • The roman army was led by Publius scipio the carthaginian army was led by Hannibal
  65. Masinissa
    • First King of Numidia
    • king of ancient north African Tribe
    • fought in the second Punic War
    • was allied with carthage against the Romans
  66. Proconsul
    • Governor of a province in the Roman Republic
    • served annual terms
    • was appointed by the senate
  67. Propraetor
    • acted in the place of praetors
    • knows as prorogations
    • was used for an official with a limited number of tasks to complete
    • the Scipio brothers both served as propraetors
  68. Hispania Citerior
    • a province of Rome located in Spain
    • translates a nearer spain
    • centers on the lower Ebro Valley
    • also centers on the Massiliote Colonies
  69. Hispania Ulterior
    • A province of Rome located in Spain
    • Translates to Further Spain
    • was ruled by a Roman governor
    • consisted of the Valley of the Baetis River
  70. Macedonian Wars
    • resulted in Roman Control over the Eastern Mediterranean
    • Macedon was allied with Hannibal at the end of the Second Punic War
    • wars ended with the sack of Corinth
    • wars took place from 215-146 BCE
  71. Third Punic War
    • Fought between the Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Empire
    • between 149-146 BCE
    • War focused on the Siege of Carthage
    • resulted in the complete destruction of carthage and death/enslavement of all carthaginians
  72. Senatus Consultum
    • advice given by the senate
    • final form of an answer given by the senate to a proposed problem
    • was made legal when a magistrate enforced it
    • or the proposal could be revoked all together
  73. Cursus Honorum
    • sequential order of public offices held by politicians in the Roman Republic
    • comprised a mixture of military and administrative posts
    • each office had a minimum age for election
  74. Quaestones Perpetuae
    • Standing Jury Courts
    • criminal courts of the late republic
  75. slavery in Rome
    • recieved legal protection over time including the right to complain on their masters
    • played important role in roman society and the roman economy
    • performed manual labor in mines and on farms
    • also worked in accounting
  76. Aulus Gabinius
    • a Tribune
    • enacted the first law requiring secret ballots
    • Roman statesman and General
    • prominent figure in the later days of the roman republic
  77. Scipio Aemilianus
    • commanded at the final siege of carthage in 146
    • bullied the senate into putting him up for consular appointment
    • was a leader of the senators opposed to the Gracchus brothers
  78. Cato the elder
    • roman Senator
    • decided what to do with Carthage after their defeat in the third punic war
    • Razed carthage to the ground
    • sowed the land with salt so that the city might never again be rebuilt
  79. Tiberias Gracchus
    • Roman Tribune
    • wanted to restore the licenian Sextion law
    • this law would take give land from people owning over 300 acres to poor farmers
    • Tiberias murdered in the face of stiff opposition
  80. Marcus Octavius
    • a Tribune during the time of Tiberias Gracchus
    • Opposed Tiberias's plan of land reform
    • Tiberias deposed him for this
    • led to serious confrontation between the traditionalists and the reformers
  81. Gaius Gracchus
    • Brother to Tiberias Gracchus
    • Gave land commission in Rome greater judicial authority
    • built roads linking rural farms to urban market centers
    • tried and failed to issue roman citizenship to all Italian allies
  82. Marcus Livius Drusus
    • set up as tribune by the senate in 121
    • was charged with opposing gaius Gracchus land reforms
    • he proposed setting up 3000 colonies filled with lower classes
    • said that latin allies should not be mistreated by Roman generals the opposition to Gracchus proposal that roman citizenship be issued to all italian allies
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History of Rome
Exam 1 study terms for history of the Roman World
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