GCSE Biology

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  1. there are three main stages in drugs trials these are
    • testing drugs on human cells and tissues in the lab
    • testing the drugs on live animals
    • clinical trials
  2. what is the prupose of testing the drug on live animals
    te test to see whether the drug is toxic
  3. what do people think about testing drugs on animals
    • some people think it is cruel to test on aninmals
    • others believe it is the safest way to make sure a drug isnt dangerous to humans
    • some people alos think that animals are so different from humans that testing on animals is pointless
  4. what does phase 1 clinical trials involve
    the drug is tested on healthy volunteers , to make sure that the drug doesnt have any harmful side effects
  5. what does phase 2 clinical trials involve
    the drug is tested on a larger group of healthy humans to determine the optimum dose
  6. what does phase 3 clinical trials involve
    the drug is tested on patients to test whether the drug is effective on people who have the disease
  7. what do phase 4 clinical trials involve
    the drug is tested on a large number of patients to confirm its effectiveness and that side effects are minimal . The drug now has a license and is continually monitored .
  8. clinical trials are ...... ..... - the patient nor the doctors knows which patients are recieving the placebo and which patients are recieving the drug
    double blind
  9. why are double blind tests used
    so the doctors monitoring the patients and analysing the results aren't subconsciously influenced by their knowledge
  10. why are placebo's used
    so the doctor can see the actual difference the drug makes - it allows for the placebo effect (when the patient expects the treatment to work and so feels better , even though the treatment isn't doing anything)
  11. an example of what can happen when drugs are nit thoroughly tested is in the case of the thaloidomide - a drug developed in the 1950's . Thalidomide was intened as a ...... .... and was tested for that use . But later it was also found to be effective in relieving ..... ..... in ..... ... . Unfortunately thalidomide hadn't been tested on pregnant animals , and so it wasnt known that thalidomide could cause ....... ..... .... . about 10000 babies were affected by Thalidomide and only half of them survived
    • sleeping pill
    • morning sickness
    • pregnant women
    • abdominal limb development
  12. later thalidomide was ..... , and more ...... ...... ...... ..... ......
    • banned
    • rigorous testing procedures were introduced
  13. more recently thalidomide has been used for the treatment of
    leprosy and other disease such as cancer
  14. illegal drugs are often divided into two main clases
    soft and hard
  15. hard drugs are usually thought of as being
    addictive and generally more addictive than soft drugs
  16. the terms "soft" and "hard" are a bit vague - they're not scientific terms and you can certianly have problems with soft drug use for example heroine and ectsasy (hard drugs) and cannabis (a soft drug) can all
    cause heart and circulatory system problems
  17. why do people use recreational drugs
    • when asked why they used cannabis , most user quote either simple enjoyment , relaxiation or stress relief . Some say theydo it to get stoned or for inspiration .
    • But very often this turns out not to be the whole story . There may be other factors in the users background or personal life which influence them in choosing to use drugs . It's a personal thing , and often pretty complicated
  18. almost all users of hard drugs have tried
    cannabis first
  19. why do people think that cannabis leads people on to hard drugs
    • cannabis is a stepping stone - the effects of cannabis create a desire to try harder drugs
    • cannabis is a gateway drug - cannabis use brings people into direct contact with drug dealers
  20. why dont people think that cannabis leads people onto hard drugs
    because it's all down to genetics - certain people are more likely to take drugs generally , so cannabis users will also try new drugs
  21. some multiple sclerosis sufferers say that cannabis can
    relieve pain
  22. some legal drugs have more of an impact than
    illegal drugs
  23. tobacco and alcohol are both legal drugs but have a massive effect on people and the society smoking causes
    • diseases of the heart , blood vessels and lungs
    • tobacco smoke causes cancer
    • nicotine is the drug found in cigarettes - it's addictive so it's hard to stop smoking
  24. alcohol affects
    • the nervous system and slows down the body's reactions
    • too much alcohol leads to impaired judgement , poor coordination and unconsciousness
    • and excessive drinking can cause liver disease and brain damage
    • alcohol is also addictive
  25. tobacco and alcohol have a bigger impact in the UK than illegal drugs , as
    so many people take them
  26. the national health service spends loads on treating people with
    lung diseases caused by smoking
Card Set:
GCSE Biology
2012-06-01 08:51:29

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