BIOL40C Ch. 27 Body Fluids

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BIOL40C Ch. 27 Body Fluids
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2012-06-01 04:17:55
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BIOL40C 27 Body Fluids
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BIOL40C Ch. 27 Body Fluids
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  1. ICF
    • intracellular fluids
    • within cells
  2. ECF
    • extracellular fluid
    • outside cells
  3. 2 components of ECF
    • 80% interstitial fluid
    • 20% plasma
  4. 2 barriers that separate fluid compartments
    • 1) plasma membrane of cells
    • 2) blood vessel walls
  5. 3 major sources of water in the body
    • 1) metabolic water (produced by body processes)
    • 2) ingest foods
    • 3) ingested liquids
  6. the 3 organs responsible for water loss
    • 1) lungs
    • 2) skin
    • 3) kidneys
  7. What is the response to dehydration?
    thirst
  8. What is the hormonal response to solute loss?
    angiotensin II and aldosterone promote reabsorption of Na and Cl and increase fluid volume
  9. What happens if excessive water accumulates in the body?
    • water intoxication
    • may cause convulsions, coma, & death
  10. electrolyte
    an ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions in solution
  11. 4 major functions of ions in the body
    • 1) control osmosis of water between compartments
    • 2) maintain acid-base balance
    • 3) carry electrical current
    • 4) serve as cofactors
  12. electrolyte unit of measurement
    milliequivalents/liter (mEq/L)
  13. major role of Na+ in the body
    electrolyte balance (accounts for almost half of osmolarity of ECF

    most abundant EC ion

    controlled by aldosterone, ADH, ANP
  14. major role of Cl- in the body
    helps balance anions in different compartments

    most prevalent anion in ECF

    controlled by aldosterone, ADH
  15. 3 major roles of K+ in the body
    • 1) maintaining fluid volume
    • 2) impulse conduction
    • 3) muscle contraction

    controlled by aldosterone
  16. major role of HCO3- in the body
    major component of the plasma acid-base buffer system

    controlled by kidneys
  17. major roles of Ca2+ in the body
    • 1) structural component (bone, teeth)
    • 2) blood clotting
    • 3) NT release
    • 4) muscle tone
    • 5) nerve & muscle function

    regulated by parathyroid hormone
  18. 2 major actions of buffer systems
    • 1) prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH
    • 2) change strong acid/base into weaker one
  19. 3 principal buffer systems in the body
    • 1) protein
    • 2) carbonic acid-bicarbonate
    • 3) phosphate
  20. How do the lungs contribute to acid-base balance?
    • 1) increase in rate/depth of breathing -> more CO2 exhaled -> increase pH
    • 2) decrease in rate/depth of breathing -> less CO2 exhaled -> blood pH falls
  21. How do the kidneys contribute to acid-base balance?
    excrete H+ and reabsorb/synthesize HCO3-
  22. normal pH range of blood
    7.35-7.45
  23. acidosis
    blood pH < 7.35

    depression of CNS through depression of synaptic transmission
  24. alkalosis
    blood pH > 7.45

    overexcitability of CNS through facilitation of synaptic transmission
  25. respiratory compensation
    blood pH brought back to normal by breathing alteration to affect pH change due to metabolic causes
  26. renal compensation
    changes in secretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3- by the kidney tubules to help reverse pH changes due to respiratory causes
  27. respiratory acidosis
    abnormally high PCO2 in systemic arterial blood (>45mmHg)

    due to lack of removal of CO2
  28. respiratory alkalosis
    low PCO2 (<35mmHg) -> increased pH

    due to hyperventilation
  29. metabolic acidosis
    blood [HCO3-] is too low -> decreased pH

    resp. compensation by hyperventilation
  30. metabolic alkalosis
    blood [HCO3-] is too high -> increased pH

    due to vomiting, dehydration

    resp. compensation by hypoventilating

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