PSY 430

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PSY 430
2012-06-01 14:59:46
Developmental Psychology Infancy Childhood

CH1: Introduction
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  1. Science of Human Development
    the science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
  2. Empirical
    based on observation, experience, or experiment; not theoretical
  3. Scientific Method
    a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions
  4. Hypothesis
    a specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
  5. Replication
    he repitition of a study, using different participants
  6. Scientific Method Steps
    1. Pose a question

    2. Develop a hypothesis

    3. Test hypothesis

    4. Draw conclusion

    (5. Replication)
  7. Nature
    a general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception
  8. Nurture
    a general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived
  9. Difference-Equals-Deficit Error
    the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard
  10. Dynamic-Systems Approach
    a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his/her environment, including the family and society
  11. Discontinuity
    signifies developments that appear quite different from those that came before.
  12. Continuity
    signifies developments over time that appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next.
  13. Critical Period
    a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body/behavior) must happen. If the time passes without that growth, the person will never grow in that particular way
  14. Sensitive Period
    a time when a certain type of developmet is most likely to happen and happens most easily. If that development does not occur during that time, it could still occur later
  15. Ecological-Systems Approach
    the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life
  16. Cohort
    a group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts at about the same age
  17. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    a person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors
  18. Ethnic Group
    people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion
  19. Race
    a group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance
  20. Social Construction
    an idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality

    (i.e. childhood, yuppie, senior citizen)
  21. Mirror Neurons
    brain cells that fire both when an individual performs an action and when the individual observes the same action performed by someone else
  22. Plasticity
    the idea that abilities, personality, and other human traits can change over time

    particularly evident during childhood, but even older adults are not always "set in their ways"
  23. Scientific Observation
    a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner, in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data
  24. Experiment
    a research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause-and-effect relationships between 2 variables by manipulating one (the independent variable) and then observing and recording the resulting canges in the other (the dependent variable)
  25. Independent Variable
    in an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the other variable

    AKA experimental variable
  26. Dependent Variable
    in an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds.
  27. Experimental Group
    a group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition (the independent variable)
  28. Comparison/Control Group
    a group of participants in a research study who are similar to the experimental group in all relevant ways but who do not experience the experimental condition (the independent variable)
  29. Survey
    a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionaires, or some other means
  30. Case Study
    a research method in which one individual is studied intensively
  31. Cross-Sectional Research
    a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
  32. Longitudinal Research
    a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed
  33. Cross-Sequential Research
    a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach), and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach).

    AKA cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research
  34. Correlation
    a number indicating the degree of relationship between 2 variables, expresses in terms of the likelihood that one variable will/will not occur when the other variable does/does not.

    not an indication that one variable causes the other, only that the 2 variables are related
  35. Quantitative Research
    research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, i.e. ranks or scales
  36. Qualitative Research
    research that considers qualities instead of quantities

    often includes descriptions of particular conditions and participants' expressed ideas
  37. Code of Ethics
    a set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow
  38. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
    the American Psychiatric Association's official guide to the diagnosis (NOT treatment) of mental disorders