the science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
based on observation, experience, or experiment; not theoretical
a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions
a specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted
he repitition of a study, using different participants
Scientific Method Steps
1. Pose a question
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis
4. Draw conclusion
a general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception
a general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived
the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard
a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his/her environment, including the family and society
signifies developments that appear quite different from those that came before.
signifies developments over time that appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next.
a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body/behavior) must happen. If the time passes without that growth, the person will never grow in that particular way
a time when a certain type of developmet is most likely to happen and happens most easily. If that development does not occur during that time, it could still occur later
the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life
a group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts at about the same age
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
a person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors
people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion
a group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance
an idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality
(i.e. childhood, yuppie, senior citizen)
brain cells that fire both when an individual performs an action and when the individual observes the same action performed by someone else
the idea that abilities, personality, and other human traits can change over time
particularly evident during childhood, but even older adults are not always "set in their ways"
a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner, in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data
a research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause-and-effect relationships between 2 variables by manipulating one (the independent variable) and then observing and recording the resulting canges in the other (the dependent variable)
in an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the other variable
AKA experimental variable
in an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds.
a group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition (the independent variable)
a group of participants in a research study who are similar to the experimental group in all relevant ways but who do not experience the experimental condition (the independent variable)
a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionaires, or some other means
a research method in which one individual is studied intensively
a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed
a hybrid research method in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach), and then follow those groups over the years (a longitudinal approach).
AKA cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research
a number indicating the degree of relationship between 2 variables, expresses in terms of the likelihood that one variable will/will not occur when the other variable does/does not.
not an indication that one variable causes the other, only that the 2 variables are related
research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, i.e. ranks or scales
research that considers qualities instead of quantities
often includes descriptions of particular conditions and participants' expressed ideas
Code of Ethics
a set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
the American Psychiatric Association's official guide to the diagnosis (NOT treatment) of mental disorders