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What is the fundemental purpose of the organs within the body?
To help regulate the ECF of cells and maintain homeostasis.
What is homeostasis? Describe it with a functional approach.
The changes that occur within the body to help maintain stable conditons within cells. When the body senses changes, it will try to compensate to keep values next to normal. If the body succeeds, then it accomplishes Homeostasis. If not, sickness or death may follow.
What are the 7 basic steps to a reflex control pathway? (Think of the Fishtank analogy)
- Afferent Pathway
- Intergrating Center
- Effecent Pathway
- A disturbance or change in the variable
- *The temp. below normal for fish tank*
- Specialized cell, part of cell, or multi-cellular structure that detects the change in the variable
- *the thermometer in fish tank*
- How the receptor sends the information to the ingergration center. Usually through a nerve. (Kind of like a road/path)
- *The wire from the thermometer to control box*
- Specialized cell, part of cell, or multi-cellular structure that compares the recieved info with the "normal range" and then decides what action needs to be taken.
- *Control box*
- How the Intergrating Center sends the information to the effectors. (Think of another road/path) Usually through action potential on a nerve or some chemical.
- *wire to the heater*
- Cells that respond to the instructions sent from the Intergrating center.
- MUST have membrane receptors to respond to the proper chemical or electrical signal sent by the efferent pathway.
- *The heater, it turns on when signal is recieved*
- What actually happens in the effectors once the signal is recieved.
- *water temperature increases as a result of the heater*
Where are most of the Intergration systems located?
Within the Nervous or Endocrine system.
How are Nervous and Endocrine Intergration systems similar?
Both require intergration systems that then send out efferent signals in the form of hormones or neurons. These signals are then recieved by the effectors which carry out a response.
What is different about the pathways for Nervous intergration systems compared to the endocrine intergration system pathways?
Nervous pathways usually require a receptor and afferent pathway, and endocrine pathways do not.
How are Nervous and Endocrine Intergration systems different in specificity?
Electrical signals pass through neurons to specific areas./ Chemical signals pass through the blood to the entire body.
How are nervous and endocrine intergration systems different in the nature of the signal?
Neurons are more specific to single target cells or neighboring cells./ Most cells in the body are exposed to hormones and response depends on cell receptors.
How are nervous and endocrine intergration systems different in speed?
Neural reflex is very quick./ Endocrine reflex is slower in distribution and action.
How are the nervous and endocrine intergration systems different in duration?
Nervous responses are usually very short./ Endocrine responses lasts much longer.
How are the nervous and endocrine intergartion systems different in coding response intensity?
The neurons send signals identical in strength which is increased by frequency of signal./ With the endocrine system, the intensity is connected to the amount of hormone released.
What is Tonic control?
Means that the variable varies between high and low but never shuts off totally.
What is Antagonistic control?
It means that the organ or system is controlled by two different pathways that produce opposite results.
- The response is in the opposite direction of the stimulus.
- Most common type of response
- The response is in the same direction as the stimulus.
- DO NOT MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS
- Example: Birth, nursing
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