PSY 430 - CH2

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PSY 430 - CH2
2012-06-02 01:51:48
Developmental Psychology

CH2: Theories of Development
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  1. Psychoanalytic Theory
    a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
  2. Behaviorism
    a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior.

    AKA learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
  3. Conditioning
    according to behaviorism, the process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.

    this word is used to emphasise the importance of repeated practice
  4. Classical Conditioning
    the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning.

    AKA Respondent Conditioning
  5. Operant Conditioning
    the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the person/animal more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated)

    AKA Instrumental Conditioning
  6. Reinforcement
    a technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired
  7. Social Learning Theory
    an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.
  8. Modeling
    the central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
  9. Self-Efficacy
    in social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context
  10. Cognitive Theory
    a grand theory of human developmennt that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
  11. Cognitive Equilibrium
    in cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
  12. Assimilation
    type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into old ideas
  13. Accommodation
    type of adaptation in which old ideas are reconstructed to include new experiences
  14. Sociocultural Theory
    an emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces
  15. Guided Paticipation
    in sociocultural theory, a technique in which skilled mentors help novices learn not only by providing instruction but also by allowing direct, shared involvement in the activity.

    AKAA apprenticeship in thinking
  16. Zone of Proximal Development
    in sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help
  17. Epigenetic Theory
    an emergent theory of development that considers both the genetic origins of behavior (within each person and within each species) and the direct, systematic influence that environmenal forces have, over time, on genes
  18. Performism
    the theory that genes determine every aspect of development
  19. Sociobiology
    the study of how individuals within society seek to pass along their genetic heritage
  20. Evolutionary Psychology
    the study of the inherited patterns of behavior that were once adaptive
  21. Selective Adaptation
    the process by which humans and other species gradually adjust to their environment.

    This process is based on the frequency with which a particular genetic trait in a population increases or decreases over generations; that frequency depends on whether or not the trait contributes to the survival ad reproductive ability of members of that population
  22. Developmental Theory
    a group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.

    provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development
  23. Eclectic Perspective
    the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory