Card Set Information

2012-06-07 08:18:48

EMT stuff
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  1. Dependent Livitity
    Blood settling to the lowest point of the body, causing discoloration of the skin.
  2. Rigor mortis
    Stiffening of the body muscles caused by chemical changes within the muscle tissue, starting from the face and jaw and decending. Occurs 2-12 hours after death.
  3. Putrefaction
    Decomposition of the body tissues. Occurs 40-96 hours after death.
  4. Upper Right Quadrant
    • Bile duct
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
  5. Upper Left Quadrant
    • Stomach
    • Spleen
  6. Lower Right Quadrant
    • Small intestine
    • Appendix
  7. Lower Left Quadrant
    Large intestine
  8. Cyanosis
    Blue or grey in the lips, mucous membranes, nail beds, and skin over the blood vessels due to loss of oxygen.
  9. Jaundice
    Skin and sclera (whites of eyes) turn yellow caused by liver disease or dysfunction.
  10. Diaphoretic
  11. Crepitus
    A grating or grinding sensation cuase by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together. Also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
  12. Rales or Crackles
    Crackling, rattling, breath sound that signals fluid in the air space of the lungs
  13. Rhonchi
    Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways
  14. Stridor
    A harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sound that is often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction. May sound like crowing and be audible without a stethoscope
  15. Diptheria
    Contagious disease, obstructs passage of airway in the larynx with the accumulation of debris, mucus, and inflamatory cells.
  16. Epiglottitis
    Swelling of the epiglottis. Sore throat. Can block tha airway. Stridor develops late in swelling.
  17. Croup
    Swelling of the airway, typically in 6 months to 3 year olds. Stridor and seal-bark cough. Give O2
  18. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    Flu like symptoms. pneumonia, respiratory failure. Spreads through close person to person contact.
  19. Acute Pulmonary Edema
    Follows after a major heart attack. Fluid buildup from inifficient heartbeats. Rapid shallow respirations.
  20. Spontaneous Pneumothorax
    Collapsed lung due to air entering the pleural cavity. Causes dyspnea (short of breath) and pleuritic chest pain (a sharp, stabbing pain on one side that is worse during inspiration and expiration or movement of chest wall. Decreased breath sounds on one side.
  21. Pleural Effusion
    Fluid outside the lungs, compressing the lungs, and causing dypsnea. Decreased breath sounds over affected area. Patients frequently feel better when sitting upright.
  22. Pulmonary Embolism
    Blood clot from a vein gets lodged in the pulmonary artery. Causes dypsnia, acute chest pain, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), cyanosis, tachypnea, and varying degrees of hypoxia.
  23. Ischemia
    Insufficient oxygen
  24. Atherosclerosis
    Most common cause of low blood flow. Buildup of calcium and cholesterol.
  25. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
    "Classic hearth attack"- Atherosclerosis leads to a crack in blood vessel. Clot leads to blockage of the artery which leads to tissue death. Infarction means tissue death. Can lead to cardiac arrest.
  26. Angina Pectoris
    When the demand for oxygen exceeds its supply, typically from physical or emotional stress, a large meal, or sudden fear. Typically lasts 3-8 minutes and no more than 15. Crushhing or squeezing feeling under the sternum. Unstable angina pectoris can lead to an AMI.
  27. Ventricular Arrhythmia
    Twitching of the heart during cardiac arrest. No pulse is present. The hart is using up energy without pumping.
  28. Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)
    Rapid heart rhythm (150-200). Electricity in the ventrical before the atrium, not allowing the left ventricle to fill with blood. Causes a drop in blood pressure. Can deteriorate into ventricular fibrilation.
  29. Ventricular Fibrilation
    Disorganized, ineffective quivering of the ventricles. No blood flow and patient becomes uncontious within seconds. Defibrillation is only treatment.
  30. Asystole
    Absence of all electrical activity
  31. Cardiac Shock
    Often a result of heart failure (imidiately to 23 hours after onset of AMI). Characterized by organ failure.
  32. Congestive Heart Failure
    Usually between the first few hours and first few days after a heart attack, but also heart valve damage or longstanding high blood pressure. Ventricular heart muscles cannot keep up with blood flow from the atria. Heart rate increases and left ventrical enlarges to compensate. Lungs start to fill with fluid and leads to pulminary edema.
  33. Dependent Edema
    Right side heart damage. Fluid collects in the feet and legs, typically only causing discomfort.
  34. Syncope
    Fanting spell or transient loss of consciousness
  35. Occlusion
    Blockage, usually of a tubular structure and vessels.
  36. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
    Loss of blood flow to the brain resulting in loss of brain function (Stroke).
  37. Thrombosis
    Clotting of cerebral arteries. Possible cause of CVA.
  38. Arterial rupture
    Rupture of the cerebral arteries. Possible cause of CVA.
  39. Cerebral Embolism
    Obstruction of a cerebral artery caused by a clot that was formed elsewhere and traveled to the brain. Possible cause of CVA.
  40. Hemorrhagic Stroke
    Bleed in brain. Clots squeeze brain tissue and blocks oxygenated blood. 10% of strokes. Long term high blood pressure is a risk factor. Can be caused by an aneurysm. Can cause a raise in blood pressure to compensate for blood loss, then will return to normal or significant drop.
  41. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    A type of hemorrhagic stroke, where an aneurysm ruptures (aneurysm- swelling or enlargement of partr of the artery, weakening the arterial wall). Patients will describe this as the worst headache they have ever had.
  42. Ischemic Stroke
    Blood flow to brain blocked off by a blockage inside a blood vessel. Caused by thrombosis or a cerebral embolism. Patients will have dramatic symptoms such as loss of movement on the opposite side of the body.
  43. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
    "Mini-stroke." Stoke symptoms go away within 24 hours due to the body's natural processes break up the clot. Can be an indicater of a later perminant stroke.
  44. Left Hemisphere Problems (Strokes)
    Receptive aphasia (inability to understand speech). Expressive aphasia (inability to speak). Right side paralysis.
  45. Right Hemisphere Problems (Stroke)
    Left side paralysis. Dusarthria (slurred speech). Neglect (e.g. if asked to raise their left arm, they will raise their right arm to compensate).
  46. Generalized Seizure
    Also known as a grand mal seizure. Loss of consciousness and generalized severe twitching that lasts several minutes. Can begin with an aura.
  47. Absence Seizure
    Also known as petit mal seizure. Typically in children ages 4-12. Brief laps of consciousness without loss of composure (staring with no response). Can also involve lip smacking, eye blinking, or isolated convulsions or jerking of the body.
  48. Tonic-clonic phase of a Seizure
    Extensor muscle tone activity, tongue bitting, bladder/bowel incontinence. Bilateral movement (rocking back and forth) and muscle rigidity lasting 1-3 minutes. Patient will exhibit tachycardia, hyperventilation, and intense salivation.
  49. Common Causes of Seizures
    Epileptic (congenital) Structural (tumor, infection, scar tissue, head trauma, stroke) Metabolic (hypoxia, abnormal blood chemistry, hypoglycemia, poisoning, drug overdose, sudden withdrawal form alcohol/medications), Febrile (sudden high fever)
  50. Postictal State of Seizures
    Compensatory response after a seizure. Muscles relax and breathing is labored (fast and deep) to correct the balance of acidity in the blood. Longer seizures require longer postictal states. May present hemiparesis (weakness on one side- similar to a stroke) but it will resolve itself on its own.
  51. Colic
    Severe intermitten cramping due to irritation of the peritonium (membraine that lines organs)
  52. Ulcers
    Erosion of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Perforation of an ulcer causes servere peritonitis. Pain in upper mid abdomen or upper back
  53. Cholecystitis
    Severe inflamation of the gallbladder due to a gallstone that blocks the outlet from the gallbladder. Direct pain in right upper quadrant. Referred pain in right shoulder. Can cause a fever.
  54. Pancreatitis
    Inflamation of the pancreas, caused by a blocking gallstone, alcohol abuse, and other diseases. Pain is often referred to the back and(or) both quadrants of the upper abdoman.
  55. Diverticulitis
    Inflammation of the small pouches in the large intestine. Pouches can become blocked and infected, leading to pain, perforation, and severe peritonitis. Pain in left lower quadrant. Can cause a fever.
  56. Appendicitis
    Inflammation or infection in the appendix. Direct pain in right lower quadrant. Reffered pain around navel. Rebounding pain (pain felt on the rebound of palpation). Fever may appear until appendix ruptures.
  57. Aortic Aneurysm
    Rupture or dissecting of the aorta behind the paritoneum on the spinal column. Pulsating mass may be felt on the abdomen. Pain in low back and lower quadrants. Can lead to shock.
  58. Cystitis
    Inflammation of the bladder. Pain in lower mid-abdomen.
  59. Kidney infection
    Pain in costovertebral angle
  60. Renal Colic
    Severe pain caused bu passage of a kidney stone. Associated with blood in the urine. Direct pain in right or left flanks. Referred pain in genitalia.
  61. Mittelschmerz
    Menstral pain, associated with the release of an egg from the ovary. Often confused with appendicitis but is short lived. Pain in lower abdomin.
  62. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    Infection of the fallopian tubes and surrounding tissue of the pelvis. Acute pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, often intense and accompanied by a high fever. Requires imidiate transportation.
  63. Ectopic pregnancy
    A fertalized egg lies in an area outside of the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube. The tube ruptures within 6 to 8 weeks, resulting in massive internal hemorrhaging and abrupt abdominal pain. Associated with the onset of hypovolemic shock.
  64. Hernia
    A potrusion of an organ or tissue through a hole in the body wall covering. Virtually every organ can herniate under specific circumstances, due to a congenital defect, a surgical wound that healed improperly, or a natural weakness in the area (such as the groin). Reducible (can return inside the body) or Incarcerated (cannot be pushed back in).
  65. Strangulation (in hernias)
    Incarcerated hernias will begin to compress surounding tissue and compromise the blood supply.
  66. Peritonitis
    Damage of membraine surrounding organ tissue. Causes Ileus (paralysis of muscular contractions to propel fluids and gasses) which causes abdominal distension). Body is often forced to empty such buildup by emesis (vomiting). Causes anorexia (difficulty eating). Loss of blood can lead to lower BP and possibly shock.
  67. Type 1 Diabetes
    Do not produce insulin at all. Can developemetabolic problems, organ damage, blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and nerve disorders. Is considered an autoimmune problem where the body is allergic to and destroys insulin producing cells.
  68. Type 2 Diabetes
    Inadiquate insulin production, or regular production but the insulin functions ineffectively. Non insulin-dependant diabetes (NIDD). Can be treated with diet and exercise, or medicine to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. Without insulin, glucose remains in the blood.
  69. Polyuria
    Frequent and plentiful urination. Result of uncontrolled diabetes, due to the large amount of water required for the kidneys to regulate excess glucose.
  70. Polydipsia
    Frequent drinking of liquid to satisfy continuous thirst (secondary to the loss of so much body water. Result of uncontrolled diabetes, due to the large amount of water required for the kidneys to regulate excess glucose.
  71. Polyphagia
    Excessive eating as a result of cellular "hunger." Seen only occasionally as a result of uncontrolled diabetes.
  72. Acidosis
    The body uses fat as a source of energy to compensate for a lack of glucose. Chemicals created from this process are ketones and fatty acids, which are hard on the body.
  73. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
    Type of acidosis caused by uncontrolled diabetes. Acids accumulate to the lack of insulin. Signs and symptoms include vomiting, abdominal pain, and Kussmaul Respirations (deep rapid breathing). Can cause cell death which can lead to unconsciousness, diabetic coma, and death.
  74. Hyperglycemia
    High blood glucose level. Hyperglycemia leads to ketoacidosis, which leads to a diabetic coma.
  75. Hypoglycemia
    Low blood glucose levels. Leads to unresponsiveness and eventually insulin shock.
  76. Diabetic Coma
    Result of hyperglycemia (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include Kussmaul respirations (biggest difference between diabetic coma and insulin shock), dehydration (dry warm skin, sunken eyes), sweet of fruity (acetone) odor on the breath (caused by keynones), rapid pulse, normal or slightly low BP, unresponsiveness.
  77. Insulin Shock
    Caused by hypoglycemia. Too much insulin keeps glucose out of the blood to fuel cells too rapidly, leaving insufficient amounts to supply the brain. Caused by taking too much insulin, taking a regular dose of insulin without eating enough food, or having too much vigorous exercise which uses up too much glucose. Develops more quickly than diabetic comas. Signs and symptoms: normal or rapid respirations, pain and moist skin, diaphoresis (sweating), dizziness, headache, rapid pulse, normal to low blood pressure, AMS, combative behavior, hunger, seizures/fainting/coma, weekness on one side of the body. Minutes count to administer glucose before permanent brian damage occurs. When in doubt, err on the side of insulin shock with glucose treatment, will not be too damaging to give glucose for a diabetic coma.
  78. Urticaria
  79. Wheal
    Raised, swollen, well-defined area on skin from an insect bite or allergic reaction.
  80. Epinephrine
    Rapidly raises pulse rate and blood pressure by constricting blood vessels. Inhibits allergic reactions and dialates bronchioles. Commonly called adrenaline.
  81. Opioid
    Drug or agent with actions similar to morphine.
  82. Vomitus
    Vomit (noun not verb) (emesis is the verb form)
  83. Cleaning absorbed and surface contact poisons
    • Brush off, then rinse with water, then wash with soap and water
    • (except phosphorus or elemental sodium- reacts to water)
    • Large amount of material - at least 20 minutes with water
    • In eyes- 5-10 minutes (bridge of nose outward)
  84. Inhaled poison symptoms
    Burning eyes, sore throat, cough, chest pain, hoarseness, wheezing, respiratory distress, dizziness, confusion, headache, or stridor in severe cases.
  85. Alcohol
    Sedative (decreases activity and excitement), hypnotic (induces sleep). Can cause hypoglycemia in severe cases.
  86. Hematemesis
    Bloody vomit, caused by irritation of the stomach (in the case of alcohol)
  87. Delirium Tremens (DTs)
    Syndrome characterized by restlessness, fever, sweating, disorientation, agitation, and seizures. Caused by alcohol withdrawals. 1-7 days after stopping drinking.
  88. Salmonellosis
    Caysed by the salmonella bacterium. Characterized by severe gastrointestinal symptoms within 72 hours of ingestion, including nausea, vomitting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Possible fever and generalized weakness.
  89. Staphylococcus
    Bacterium. Causes sudden gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Syptoms begin within 2-12 hours after ingestion.
  90. Botulism
    Illness resulting form eating improperly canned food, where Clostridium bacteria spores exist. Causes neurologic symptoms: blurring of vision, weakness, difficulty in speaking and breathing. Symptoms begin within 24 hours-4 days.