BIOL 100 exam 2 - CH3

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  1. Cell Theory
    this fundamental organizing principle of biology states that

    • (1) a cell is the smallest unit of life,
    • (2) cells make up all living things, and
    • (3) new cells come from pre-existing cells
  2. Prokaryotic Cell
    a cell that has NO nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.

    has DNA in nucleus region

    includes bacteria and archaea
  3. Organelle
    provides a means for functions of life

    part of a cell that serves a function

    does NOT always have a membrane
  4. Eukaryotic Cell
    Can be 1 or many organisms

    HAS a nucleus

    HAS membrane-bound organelles (i.e. Ribosome)

    VERY complex

    includes cells in plants, animals and all other organisms except bacteria and archaea
  5. Surface-to-Volume Ratio
    the physical relationship dictating that volume of a cell increases faster than its surface area.

    this relationship explains why most cells are small
  6. Plasma Membrane
    regulates things going in and out of a cell
  7. Extracellular Fluid
    the watery solution ouside cells.

    AKA interstitial fluid
  8. Cytoplasm
    the part of a cell that includes the aqueous fluid within the cell and all the organelles with the exception of the nucleus
  9. Fluid Mosaic
    a term used to describe the structure of the plasma membrane.

    proteins interspersed throughout the lipid molecules give the membrane its mosaic quality

    the ability of some proteins to move sideways gives the membrane its fluid quality
  10. Selectively Permeable
    a characteristic of the plasma membrane because it permits some substances to move across and denies access to others
  11. Cell Adhesion Molecule (CAM)
    a molecule that pokes through the plasma membranes of the most cells and helps hold cells together to form tissues and organs
  12. Simple Diffusion
    movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
  13. Concentration Gradient
    a difference in the number of molecules or ions between two adjacent regions.

    molecules/ions tend to move away from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
  14. Facilitated Diffusion
    movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration with the aid of a transport protein that either transports the substance from one side of the membrane to the other or forms a channel through which it can move

    Does NOT use cellular energy (ATP)
  15. Osmosis
    movement of water from high to low concentration
  16. Hypertonic Solution
    a solution with more solutes than plasma
  17. Isotonic Solution
    a solution with the same concentration of solutes as plasma
  18. Hypotonic Solution
    a solution with less solutes than plasma
  19. Active Transport
    requires cellular energy (ATP) to move from areas of LOW to HIGH concentration
  20. Endocytosis
    bringing into the cytoplasm

    • 2 types:
    • phagoctosis (cell eating)
    • pinocytosis (cell drinking)
  21. Vesicle
    a membrane-bound sac formed during endocytosis
  22. Phagocytosis
    cell eating - bringing in food
  23. Pinocytosis
    cell drinking - bringing in water
  24. Exocytosis
    cell spitting - getting "rid of" stuff
  25. Nucleus
    the command center of a cell that contains almost all the genetic information

  26. Nuclear Envelope
    the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus
  27. Chromosome
    DNA and specialized proteins
  28. Nuclear Pore
    an opening in a nuclear envelope that permits communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
  29. Nucleolus
    a specilaized region within the nucleus that forms and disassembles during the corse of the cell cycle
  30. Ribosome
    the site where protein synthesis begins in a cell

    protein factory
  31. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    the network of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells
  32. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
    endoplasmic reticulum that is stubbed with ribosomes

    it makes/modifies proteins
  33. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
    endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes.

    makes/modifies lipids
  34. Golgi Complex
    functions in protein processing and packaging for movement
  35. Lysosome
    breaks stuff down in a cell

  36. Mitochondrion
    makes cellular energy (ATP)
  37. Cytoskeleton
    cell support/ movement
  38. Microtubule
    a component of the cytoskeleton made from globular protein tubulin.

    responsible for the movement of cilia and flagella and serve as tracks for the movement of organelles and vesicles
  39. Centriole
    microtubules organizing center

    a structure, found in pairs, within a centrosome.

    each is composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
  40. Cilia
    extensions of the plasma membrane found on some cells,

    i.e. those lining the respiratory tract, that move in a back-and-forth motion
  41. Flagellum
    a whiplike appendage of a cell that moves in an undulating manner

    composed of an extension of the plasma membrane containing microtubules in a 9+2 array

    found on some cells i.e. sperm cells
  42. Microfilament
    • a component of the cytoskeleton made from globular
    • protein actin.

    forms contractile units in muscle cells and are responsible for amoeboid movement
  43. Intermediate Filament
    a component of the cytoskeleton made from fibrous proteins. functions in the maintenance of cell shape and anchoring organelles i.e. the nucleus
  44. Metabolism
    the sum of all chemical reactions within the living cell
  45. Cellular Respiration
    creates cellular energy (ATP) via the breakdown of glucose

    glucose + oxygen Image Upload 1 carbon dioxide + water
  46. Product
    a material at the end of a chemical reaction
  47. Substrate
    the material on which an enzyme works
  48. Glycolysis
    • the splitting of glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate.
    • DOES NOT need Oxygen
    • Requires 2 ATP
    • Makes 4 ATP
    • Net = 2 ATP
    • Makes 2 NADH (electron shuttle)
    • Makes 2 Pyruvate

    takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell and is the starting point of cell respiration and fermentation
  49. Pyruvate
    the 3-carbon compound produced by glycolysis, which is the first phase of cellular respiration
  50. Citric Acid Cycle
    completes the breakdown of glucose

    • produces "per turn":
    • - 2 CO2
    • - 1 ATP
    • - 3 NADH
    • - 1 FADH2
    • occurs in the mitochondrion and is AKA the Krebs cycle
  51. Electron Transport Chain
    Produced by glycolysis and the citric acid cyle. Takes NADH and FADH2 and uses the electrons to make ATP

    • NADH = 3 ATP
    • FADH2 = 2 ATP

    Electrons given to oxygen and hydrogen to make water
  52. Fermentation
    a pathway by which cells can harvest energy in the absence of oxygen
  53. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    NO oxygen = to Electron Transport Chain (ETC) = NO CA (citric acid cycle)

    created when NADH gives its electrons back to Pyruvate

    AKA anaerobic respiration
  54. Alcohol Fermentation
    NO oxygen

    NADH gives electrons to a 2 carbon molecule
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BIOL 100 exam 2 - CH3
CH 3: the Cell
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