Anthropology ch 6

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Anthropology ch 6
2012-06-02 17:09:35
Making Living

Key terms
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  1. agriculture
    Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor. 88
  2. band
    Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally. 85, 109
  3. correlation
    An association between two or more variables such that when one changes (varies), the other(s) also change(s) (covaries); for example, temperature and sweating. 85
  4. economy
    A population's system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources. 92
  5. generalized reciprocity
    Principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related individuals. As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative. 99
  6. market principle
    Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand. 98
  7. means (or factors) of production
    Land, labor, technology, and capital—major productive resources. 93
  8. mode of production
    Way of organizing production—a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge. 92
  9. nomadism, pastoral
    Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals. More generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources. 91
  10. pastoralists
    People who use a foodproducing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals. 91
  11. peasant
    Small-scale agriculturist living in a state, with rent fund obligations. 97
  12. potlatch
    Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America. 100
  13. reciprocity
    One of the three principles of exchange. Governs exchange between social equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies. 98
  14. redistribution
    Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies. 98
  15. transhumance
    One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages. 91