Lab values

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Author:
umrd0028
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156922
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Lab values
Updated:
2012-06-02 17:46:51
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Labs
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Lab values
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  1. Red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocytes
    Determines actual numer of cells in relation to volume
    • Adult man - 4.6-6.2 million/mm3
    • Adult woman - 4.2-5.4 million/mm3
    • Child 3.2-5.2 million/mm3
  2. White blood cell count (WBC), leukocytes
    Establishes amount and maturity of white blood cell elements
    • Adult - 5,000-10,000/mm3
    • Child - 5,000 - 13,000/mm3
  3. Hemoglobin
    Determines the amount of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood
    • Man - 13-18 g/dL
    • Woman - 12-16 g/dL
    • Child (3-12 yrs) - 11-12.5 gm/dL
  4. Hematocrit
    Measures percentage of red blood cells per fluid volume of blood
    • Man -42-52%
    • Woman - 35-47%
    • Child (3-12 yrs) 35-45%
  5. Bleeding time
    Measures duration of bleeding after standarized skin incision
    Used for preoperative screening
    1.5-9.5 minutes
  6. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    Monitors effectiveness of heparin therapy
    Dectects coagulation disorders
    • Lower limit of normal: 20-25 sec
    • Upper limit of normal: 32-39 sec
  7. Platelet count (thrombocyte count)
    Used to diagnose hemorrhagic diseases, thrombocytopenia
    150,000-450,000/mm3
  8. Prothrombin time (PT)
    Monitors effectiveness of Coumadin therapy
    Detects coagulation disorders
    9.5-12.0 seconds
  9. International normalized ratio (INR)
    Monitors effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy
    • 1.0
    • 2-3 for therapy in atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism
    • 2.5-3.5 for therapy in prosthetic heart valves
  10. Sedimentation rate (ESR)
    Speed at which RBCs settle in well-mixed venous blood
    Indicates inflammation
    • Man < 50 yrs: 15 mm/h
    • Man > 50 yrs: 15 mm/h
    • Woman < 50 yrs: < 25 mm/h
    • Woman > 50 yrs: < 30 mm/h
  11. Glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    Measures ability of body to secret insulin in resonse to hyperglycemia
    • Fasting - 60-110 mg/dL
    • 1 hour - 190 mg/dL
    • 2 hours - 140 mg/dL
    • 3 hours - 125 mg/dL
  12. Total cholesterol
    Evaluates tendency for atherosclerosis
    Overnight fast
    • < 160 mg/dL if no CAD
    • and < 2 risk factors
    • < 130 mg/dL if no CAD and 2 or more risk factors
    • < 100 mg/dL if CAD is present
  13. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
    Determines whether elevated cholesterol levels are caused by increased LDL or HDL
    Fast for 12-14 hours
    • Optimal - < 139 mg/dL
    • Borderline - 140-160 mg/dL
    • High - > 160 mg/dL
  14. High density lipoproteins (HDL)
    Determines whether elevated cholesterol levels are caused by increased LDL or HDLFast for 12-14 hours
    • Men - 35-70 mg/dL
    • Women - 35-85 mg/dL
  15. Creatinine (CR)
    Test of renal function
    NPO 8 hours
    List medications patient is taking on lab slip
    • Adult - 0.7-1.4 mg/dL
    • Child - 0.4-1.2 mg/dL
    • Infant - 0.3-0.6 mg/dL
  16. Alkaline phosphatase
    Evaluates liver and bone function
    NPO 8-12 hours
    List medications patient is taking on lab slip
    • Adult - 50-150 units/L
    • Infant and adolescent up to 104 FU/L
  17. Creatine kinase (CK)
    Used to diagnose acute MI
    Dected in blood in 3-5 hours
    • Man - 50-235 U/L
    • Woman - 50-250 U/L
    • Child - 0-70 U/L
  18. Serum albumin
    Used to detect protein malnutrition
    3.5-5.5 g/dL
  19. BUN
    Evaluate renal function
    • Values affected by protein intake, tissue breakdown, fluid volume changes
    • 7-18 mg/dL; over 60 years
    • 8-20 mg/dL
  20. Triglycerides
    Detect risk for atherosclerosis
    100-200 mg/dL
  21. Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) - Normal
    • pH - 7.35-7.45
    • PaO2 - 80-100 mm Hg
    • SaO2 - 95-98%
    • PaCO2 -35-45 mm Hg
    • HCO3 - 22-25 mEq/L
  22. Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) - Acidosis
    • pH - Below 7.35
    • PaCO2 - Respiratory >45 mmHg
    • HCO3 - Metabolic < 22 mEq/L
  23. Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) - Alkalosis
    • pH - Above 7.45
    • PaCO2 - Respiratory < 35 mm Hg
    • HCO3 - Metabolic > 26 mEq/L
  24. Liver enzymes
    With damaged liver cells, enzymes are released into bloodstream
    • Normal
    • AST (SGOT) 8-40 units
    • ALT (SGPT) 8-40 units
    • LDH 100-225 units/L
  25. Blood amomia (arterial)
    Liver converts ammonia to urea
    With liver disease, ammonia levels rise
    • Normal
    • 15-40 mcg/dL
  26. Bilirubin
    Detect presence of bilirubin due to hemolytic or liver disease
    • Total bilirubin - 0.3-1.0 mg/dL
    • Direct (conjugated) bilirubin - 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
    • Indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin - 0.1-0.4 mg/dL
  27. Ammonia
    Detect liver disorders
    • Normal - 15-45 mcg/dL
    • Avoid smoking before test
  28. Amylase
    Diagnose pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis
    • Normal 6-160 Somogyi U/dL
    • Restrict food 1-2 hours before test
    • Avoid opiates 2 hours before test
  29. Lipase
    Diagnose acute and chronic pancreatitis, biliary obstruction, hepatitis, cirrhosis
    • Normal < 200 m/ul
    • NPO 8-12 hrs before test
    • Avoid opiates 25 hrs prior to test
  30. Potassium
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  31. Sodium
    135-145 mEq/L
  32. Calcium
    • Ionized serum Ca 4.5 - 5.1 mg/dL or
    • Total serum Ca 8.5-10.5 mg/dL
  33. Magnesium
    1.5-2.5 mEq/L
  34. Urine Specific Gravity
    1.010 - 1.030

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