VIRUSES

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Author:
ecok4965
ID:
156963
Filename:
VIRUSES
Updated:
2012-06-03 06:21:24
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RNA DNA virus
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Description:
Names and clinical presentation of viruses
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  1. HSV1
    • alpha Herpes
    • 1) cold sores
    • 2) keratitis
    • 3) erythema multiforme
    • DNA VIRUS
  2. HSV2
    • alpha Herpes
    • 1) Genital herpes
    • DNA VIRUS
  3. CMV
    • beta Herpes
    • 1) 50% adult population
    • 2) opportunistic infection in immunocompromised
    • - disseminated fatal infection with widespread visceral involvement
    • DNA VIRUS
  4. VZV
    • alpha Herpes
    • 1) chickenpox
    • 2) shingles
    • DNA VIRUS
  5. HHV6 HHV7
    • beta Herpes
    • 1) roseola infantum
    • - high fever followed by generalised macular rash in infants
    • - HHV 6 associated with febrile convulsions
    • DNA VIRUS
  6. EBV
    • gamma Herpes
    • 1) acute febrile illness known as mononucleosis
    • - fever, headache and sore throat
    • 2) oral hairy leukoplakia in AIDS
    • 3) Burkitt's lymphoma
    • 4) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    • DNA VIRUS
  7. Adenovirus
    • alpha Herpes
    • 1) acute pharyngitis
    • - extension to the larynx and trachea may cause croup
    • 2) acute conjunctivis
    • DNA VIRUS
  8. Human parvovirus B19
    • Papovavirus
    • 1) erythema infectiosum (5th disease)
    • - rash on cheeks (slapped cheek) can occur over weeks or months
    • 2) arthropathy (adults)
    • 3) Aplastic crisis in sick cell
    • 4) Pregnancy (T1,T2): hydrops fetalis, spontanous abortion
    • DNA VIRUS
  9. Smallpox
    • Poxvirus
    • 1) eradicated in 1977
    • DNA
  10. Cowpox
    • Poxvirus
    • 1) large vesicles on hands in those in contact with cows
    • - associated with regional lymphadenitis and fever
    • DNA VIRUS
  11. Orf
    • Poxvirus
    • 1) contagious pustular dematitis in sheep
    • 2) hand lesions in human
    • DNA VIRUS
  12. Poliovirus
    • Picornavirus
    • 1) incubation 7-14 days
    • 2) - inapparent infection
    • - abortive poliomyelitis
    • - non-paralytic poliomyelitis
    • - paralytic poliomyelitis
    • 3) course
    • - initially abortive pm. which subsides for 4-5 days before signs of meningeal irriation and muscle pain followed by asymmetric paralysis without sensory involvement
    • - paralysis confined to lower limbs <5yrs and upper limbs >5ys -18yrs
    • - quadraplegia or paraplegia in adults
    • RNA VIRUS
  13. Cocksackie A16 or A10
    • Cocksackie virus
    • 1) Hand foot and mouth disease
    • - oral and oropharynx lesions
    • - vesicle and maculopapular eruption on palm of hands and soles of feet
    • - affects children
    • 2) Heart and muscle disease
    • - acute myocarditis and pericarditis
    • - congestive cardiomyopathy
    • - intercostal muscle involvement
    • RNA VIRUS
  14. Rhinovirus
    • Enterovirus
    • 1) common cold
    • RNA VIRUS
  15. Rotavirus
    • Reovirus
    • 1) vomiting, fever and diarrhoea (children and geris)
    • RNA VIRUS
  16. Rubella
    • Togavirus
    • 1) rubella
    • - incubation 14-21 days
    • - symptoms mild or absent <5yrs
    • - malaise, fever in prodrome
    • - mild conjuctivitis and lymphadenopathy (subocc, postaur, post cervical)
    • - small petechial lesions on the soft palate (Forchheimer spots)
    • - rash (pinkish red, macular and discrete) initially on forehead and spreads to trunk and limbs
    • - usually fades by second day
    • RNA VIRUS
  17. Yellow fever
    • Flavivirus
    • 1) Yellow fever
    • - disease found in Africa and South America
    • - transmitted by mosquitos and monkeys
    • - incubation 3-6 days
    • - mild disease of viral fevers
    • - severe disease: high fevers for 4-5days, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, flushing, epigastric pain, vomiting, bradycardia, jaundice, hepatomegaly, ecchymosis, bleeding gums, haemetemesis, malaena, coma
    • RNA VIRUS
  18. Dengue fever
    • Flavivirus
    • 1) Yellow fever
    • - most common arthropod borne viral infection
    • - Asia, South America and Africa
    • - 4 varities recognised
    • - transmitted by mosquitos
    • - incubation 4-5 days
    • - abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, flushing, retrobulbar pain, conjunctival suffusion, backache, lymphadenopathy, petechia on the soft palate, rash and desquamation, lasts for 3-4 days
    • RNA VIRUS
  19. Influenza
    • Orthomyxovirus
    • 1) Influenza A, B and C
    • A: responsible for pandemics/epidemics
    • B: localised outbreaks
    • C: rarely seen in humans
    • - spread via droplets
    • RNA VIRUS
  20. Parainfluenza
    • Paramyxovirus
    • 1) Parainfluenza
    • - parainfluenza virus I to IV
    • - disease of children
    • - similiar to common cold
    • - severe: brassy cough with inspiratory stridor and laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)
    • - development of croup due to submucosal oedema and airway obstruction in the glottic region
    • - fever for 2-3 days
    • RNA VIRUS
  21. Measles
    • Paramyxovirus (Rubeola)
    • 1) Measles
    • - highly communicable
    • - spread via droplets
    • - infectivity from 4 days before and 2 days after the onset of the rash
    • - incubation 8-14 days
    • - Two stages
    • a) pre-eruptive and catarrhal: malaise, fever, rhinorrhoea, cough, conjunctival suffusion, Koplik spots (irregular grey lesions on erythematous base on buccal mucous membrane)
    • b) eruptive/exanthematous stage: maculopapular rash initially on the face/forehead that spread to involve the rest of the body. Rash is initially discrete but may spread to become confluent and patchy. Fades in approx 1 week.
    • RNA VIRUS
  22. Mumps
    • Paramyxovirus
    • 1) Mumps
    • - droplet/direct contact spread
    • - humans are only known natural host
    • - peak infectivity 2-3 days before parotitis and 3 days afterwards
    • - incubation 18 days
    • - children and young adults
    • - prodrome: fever, malaise, headache, anorexia
    • - severe pain/swelling parotid glands, trismus
    • RNA VIRUS
  23. Respiratory Syncitial Virus
    • Paramyxovirus
    • 1) RSV
    • - respiratory infections in epidemics in Winter
    • - bronchiolitis in infants
    • - begins as URTI, 2-3 days later cough and low grade fever
    • - bronchiolitis with dyspnoea and hyperexp/costal recession
    • - short lived immunity
    • - pneumonia in immunocompromised and elderly
    • RNA VIRUS
  24. Rabies
    • Rhabdovirus
    • 1) Rabies
    • - marked affinity for nervous tissue and salivary glands
    • - transmitted bite of infected animal (dogs/foxes)
    • - incubation 1-3 months
    • - furious rabies (classic): pain and tingling at initial wound. fever, malaise, headache followed 10 days later by anxiety/agitation/depression. hallucinations, bizarre behaviour and paralysis may occur. sympathetic overactivity: hyperreflexia, spasticity. hydrophobia in 50% cases and aerophagia. convulsion, resp paralysis and cardiac arrhy in 10-14 days.
    • - dumb rabies (paralytic): symmetrical ascending paralysis usually from rabid bats.
    • RNA VIRUS
  25. Ebola virus
    • Ebola Virus
    • 1)
    • - epidemics periodically
    • - mainly in Africa
    • - mortality 25 to 90%
    • - acute onset headache, myalgia, fever, prostration
    • - day 5 maculopapular rash on face and spreading to body
    • - profuse diarrhoea with abdominal cramping and bomiting
    • - hepatosplenomegaly and facial oedema
    • RNA VIRUS

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