Social Psyc y2

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Social Psyc y2
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Social Psychology
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Social pyschology glossary
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  1. Social Neuroscience
    An integration of biological and social persepctives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviours.
  2. Acceptance
    conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
  3. actor-observers difference
    we observe others from a different perspective than we observe ourselves; in some experiments this has led to differing explanations for behaviours
  4. adaption-level phenomenon
    The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation, and thus to notice and react to changes from that level.
  5. Aggresssion
    Physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone. in laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
  6. Altruism
    A motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests.
  7. Arbitration
    Resolution of a conflict by a neutral thrid party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement.
  8. Attitude
    A favourable or unfavourable evaluative reaction towards something or someone (often rooted in one's beliefs and exhibited in one's feelings and intended behaviour)
  9. Attitude Inoculation
    Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
  10. Attractiveness
    Having physical qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someon similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference,
  11. Attribution theory
    the theory of how people explain others' behaviour- for example; by attributing it either to internal dispositions (enduring traits, motives and attitudes) or to external situations.
  12. Authoritatrian personality
    a personality that is disposed to favour obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status.
  13. Autokinetic phenomenon
    The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark.
  14. Automatic processing
    "implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitural, and without awareness, roughly corresponding to "intuition"
  15. Availability heuristic
    A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace.
  16. Behavioural Confirmation
    A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations.
  17. Belief perseverance
    Persistance of one's inital conceptions, as when the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives.
  18. Blindsight
    visual detection and response to the environment but, because of brain damage, without any consciour perception
  19. Bystander effect
    the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
  20. Catharsis
    Emotional release. The catharsis view of affression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression.
  21. Central route to persuasion
    Occurs when interested people focus on the arguements and respond with favourable thoughts.
  22. channel of Communication
    the way the message is delieverd- whether face-to-face, in writing, on film or in some other way.
  23. Clinical psychology
    the study, assessment and treatment o people with psychological difficulties
  24. Co-actors
    co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
  25. Cognitive dissonance
    Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realise that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favouring one alternative, despite reasons favouring another.
  26. cohesiveness
    A "we feeling"; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another.
  27. Collectivism
    Giving priority to the goals of one's groups (often extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
  28. Compassionate love
    the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intwined
  29. Complementarity
    the popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other.
  30. Compliance
    Conformity that invovles publicaly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while preivately disagreeing.
  31. Confederate
    An accomplice of the experimenter,
  32. Confirmation bias
    A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
  33. Conflict
    A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
  34. conformity
    a change in behaviour or belief as a result of real of imagined group pressure.
  35. Consensus
    In attribution theory, the extent to which others act similarly to the person whose behaviour is being explained.
  36. Control condition
    The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
  37. Controlled processing
    "Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective and conscious.
  38. Correlational research
    The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables.
  39. Counterfactual thinking
    imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't.
  40. Credibility
    Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy
  41. Cult
    a group typically characterised by

    • 1) distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person
    • 2) isolation from the surroudning "evil "culture and
    • 3) a charismatic leads.
  42. Culture
    The enduring behaviour, ideas, attrituddes, and tradiitons hsated by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
  43. debriefing
    In social psychology, the post experimental explanation of a study to its participants. Debriefing usually discloses any decpetion and often queries particpants regarding their understanding and feelings
  44. Deception
    In researchm an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes
  45. Defensive pessimism
    the adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivated effective action
  46. deindividuation
    loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
  47. demand characteristics
    cues in an experiment that tell the participant what behaviour is expected
  48. Dependent variable
    the variable being measured, so called because it may depend on manipulations of the independent variables
  49. Depressive realism
    The tendency of mildly depressed people to make acurate rather than self-serving judgements, attributions and predictions
  50. Disclosure reciprocity
    The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner
  51. Discrimination
    unjustified negative behaviour toward a group or its members
  52. dismissive attachments
    an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others
  53. displacement
    the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is safer or more socially acceptable target.
  54. Dispositional attribution
    attributing behaviour to the person's disposition and traits
  55. distinctiveness
    in attribution theory, the specificity of the person's bahviour to a particular situation,
  56. door-in-the-face technique
    a strategy fro gaining a concession. After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counterofferes with a more reasonable request.
  57. Dual attitudes
    Differing implicit and explicit attitudes towards the same object. Verbalised explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
  58. Egoism
    A motive (supposedly underlying all behaviour) in increase one's own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase another's welfare.
  59. Elevation
    a feeling of warmth and expansion that may provoke chills, tears, and throat clenching. Such elevation often inspires people to become from self-giving
  60. empathy
    the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting onself in another's shoes
  61. Equal-status contact
    Contact on an equal basis. Just as a relationship between people of unequal status breeds attitudes consistent with their relationships, so do relatinoships between those of equal status. Thus, to reduce prejudice, interracial contact should be betweeen persons equal in status.
  62. Evaluation apprehension
    concern for how others are evaluating us
  63. evolutionary psycholog
    the study of the evolution of cognition and bahviour using principles of natural selection
  64. experimental realism
    degree to which an experiment absorbs and involes its participants
  65. experimental reserarch
    studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others.
  66. Experimenter bias
    the tendency of research participants to live up to what they believe experimenters expect of them.
  67. External Locus of control
    the belief that change or outside forces determine one's fate.
  68. false consensus effect
    the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviours
  69. False uniqueness effect
    the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviours
  70. Fearful attachment
    an avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection
  71. foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    the tendency for peole who have first agreed to a smaller request to comply later with a larger request.
  72. framing
    the way a question or issue is posed; framing can influence people's decisions and expressed opinions.
  73. frustration
    the blocking of goal-directed behaviour
  74. frustration-aggression theory
    the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress
  75. fundamental attribution error
    the tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behaviours.
  76. Gender
    in psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
  77. Gender role
    a set of behaviour expectations for males and females
  78. group
    two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another ans perceive one another as 'us"
  79. group polarisation
    group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies, a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
  80. Group-serving bias
    explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviours, also attributin negative behaviours to their disporitions (while excusing such behaviour by one's own group)
  81. group-think
    the mode of thinking that person's engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to verride realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
  82. Healthy psychology
    the study of the psychological roots of health and illnes. Provides psychology's contribution to behavioural medicine.
  83. Heuristic
    a thinking stratedy that enables quick, efficient judgments.
  84. hindsight bias
    the tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turns out.
  85. Hostile Aggression
    aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
  86. Illusion of control
    perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are
  87. illusion of invulnerability
    an excessive optimism that blinds people to warnings of danger
  88. illusion of transparency
    the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
  89. Illusion of unanimity
    during group hink, the overestimating of group members' consesnsu
  90. illusory correlation
    perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stonger relationship than actually exists.
  91. immune neglect
    the human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the 'psychological immune system' which enables emotional recovery and resilence after bad things happen
  92. Impact bias
    overestimatin gthe enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
  93. Implicit association test
    A computer-driven assessment of implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times to measure people's automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative words. Easier pairings are taken to indicate stronger unconscious association.
  94. Implicit attitudes
    automatic, unconscious attitudes
  95. implicit egotism
    the tendency to like what we associate with ourselves, such as the letters in our name.
  96. independent self
    defining the self apart from others.
  97. independent variables
    the experimenral facotr that a researcher manipulates.
  98. Individualism
    the concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defininf one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
  99. informational influence
    conformity occuring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
  100. informed consent
    an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
  101. Ingratiation
    the use of strategies such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favour
  102. ingroup
    "us"- a group of peole who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
  103. instrinctive behaviour
    an innate, unlearned behaviour pattern exhibited by all members of a species.
  104. instrumental aggression
    aggression that is a means to some other end.
  105. insufficient justification
    reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behaviour when external justification is "insufficient"
  106. interaction
    a relationship in which the effect of one factor depends on another factor
  107. interdependent self
    construing one's identity in relation to others.
  108. Internal locus of control
    the belief that one controls one's own destiny.
  109. kin selection
    the idea that evolution has selected altruism towarsd one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.
  110. leadership
    the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
  111. learned helplessness
    the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
  112. locus of control
    the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
  113. low-ball technique
    a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an inital request will often still comply when the requester ups to ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
  114. Matching phenomenon
    the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits.
  115. Materialism
    In its economic meaning, refers to prioritising the accumulation of money and material possessions, often involving conspicuous consumption
  116. mere-exposure effect
    the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
  117. misattribution
    mistakenly attributing a behaviour to the wrong source
  118. misinformation effect
    incorporating 'misinformation' into oen's memory of the event, after witnessing an event and receiveing misleading information about it.
  119. moral exclusion
    the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boudnary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness. Moral inclusion is regarding others as within one's cicle of moral concernt.
  120. mundane realism
    the extend to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations
  121. natural selection
    the evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environemtns are passed to ensuing generations.
  122. need to belong
    a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions.
  123. normative influence
    conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance.
  124. norms
    standards for accepted and expected behaviour. Norms presribe proper behaviours.
  125. obedience
    acting in accord with a direct order or command.
  126. ostracism
    acts of excluding or ignoring someone
  127. outgroup
    'them' a group that peopl eprceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingoup
  128. overconfidence phenomenon
    the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimat e the accuracy of one's beliefs.
  129. overjustification effect
    the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled, rather than intrinsically appealing.
  130. passionate love
    a stat of intense longing for union with another .Passionate lvovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner's love, and are disconsolate on losing it
  131. peripheral route to persuasion
    occurs when people are influenced by incedental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
  132. personal identity
    a sense of one's personal atributes.
  133. persuasion
    the process by which a message induces changes in beliefs, attitudes or behaviours.
  134. physical attractiveness stereotype
    the presumption that physically attractive peole possess other socially desirable traits as well: what is beautiful is good.
  135. placebo effect
    experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is assumed to be an active agent.
  136. planning fallacy
    the tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task.
  137. prejudice
    a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
  138. preoccupied attachment
    attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxietty, ambivalence and possessiveness
  139. primacy effect
    other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence.
  140. priming
    activating particular associations in memory
  141. prosocial behaviour
    positive constructive, helpful social behaviour; the opposite of antisocial behaviours.
  142. psychological immune system
    people's strategies for rationalising, discounting, forgiving and limiting emotional trauma.
  143. racism
    an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour towards people of a given race.
  144. random assignment
    the process of assigning particpants to the conditon s of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition.
  145. random smapling
    survey procedure in which every person in the population has an equal chance of being included in the study
  146. rationalisation
    a defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
  147. reactance
    a moive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatend our freedom of action.
  148. realistic group conflict theory
    the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
  149. recency effect
    information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common than primacy effects.
  150. reciprocity norm
    an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped the.
  151. regression towards the average
    the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behaviour to retuern toward one's average.
  152. relative deprivation
    the perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself.
  153. representative heuristic
    the tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belonds to a particular group if resembling a typical members.
  154. reward theory of attraction
    the theory that we like those who behaviour is rewarding to us, or whom we associate with rewarding events.
  155. role
    a set of norms that defines how people in a given situation ought to behave.
  156. schema
    a concept or framework that organises and interprets information
  157. secure attachement
    attatchments rooted in trust and markd by intimacy.
  158. self-affirmation theory
    a theory that a) people often experience a self0image threate, after engaging in an undesrable behavour, and that b) they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people's self-concept in one domain and they will compensate by refocusing or by doing good deeds in another domain.
  159. self-awareness
    a self-conscious state in which attention focuse on oneself. It maeks people more senstivie to their own attitudes and dispositions
  160. self-disclosure
    revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  161. self-efficacy
    a sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self-worth.
  162. self-esteem
    a person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
  163. self-fulfilling prophecy
    a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
  164. self-handicapping
    protectmg one's self-image with behaviours that create a handy excuse for later failures.
  165. self-monitoring
    being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situation and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
  166. self-perception theory
    the theory that when we are unsure of our attitdues we infer them much as would someone observing us, by loking at our bahviour adn the cirumstnaces under which it occurs.
  167. self-presentation
    the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favourable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals
  168. self-reference effect
    the tendency to preocess efficiently and remember well information related to oneself.
  169. self-schema
    beliefs about self that organise and guide the prcoessing of self-relevent information
  170. self-serving attribution
    a from of self-serving bias, the tendency to attribute positve outcomes to onself and negative outcomes to toher factors.
  171. self-serving bias
    the tendency to percieve oneself favourably.
  172. self-verification
    seeking, eliciting and recalling feedback that confirms one's beliefs about himself/herself.
  173. sleeper effect
    a delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
  174. social comparison
    evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with tohers.
  175. social dilemma
    a situation in which individual's rationally pursuing their individual interests leads to collective harm.
  176. social facilitation
    orginal menaing; the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned task better when others are present. 2) the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of tothers.
  177. social identity:
    the "we" aspect of our self-concept.
  178. Social leadership
    leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support.
  179. Social learning theory
    the theoyr that we learn social behaviour by obserrving and imitiation and by being rewarded and punished.
  180. social loafing
    the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their effors towards a comon goal than when they are individually accountable.
  181. social representation
    socially shared beliefs-widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies.
  182. Social-responsibility norm
    can expectation that people will help those needing help.
  183. social scripts
    cultrually provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations.
  184. social trap
    a situation in which the conflicting parties by each rationally pursuing its self-interes, become caught in mutually destuctive behaviours.
  185. spontaneous trait inference
    an effortless automatic inference of a tria after exposure to someone's behaviour.
  186. spotlight effect
    the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behaviour than they really are.
  187. stereotypes
    a belief about the personal attributes of a group f people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneratlised, inaccurate and resistant to new information.
  188. stereotype threat
    a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereortype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
  189. subgrouping
    accommodating individuals who deviate form one's sterotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the gorup
  190. subliminal stimuli
    stimuli with intensity below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
  191. subtuping
    accomodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as 'exceptions to the rule'
  192. task leadership
    leadership that organises work, sets standards, and focuses on goals.
  193. terror management
    according to 'terror management theory', people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses when confronted with reminders of their mortality.
  194. tranformational leadership
    leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.
  195. two-factor theory of emotion
    arousal X label= emotion
  196. two-step flow of communication
    the process by which media influenc often occurs through opinion leaders who in turn influence others.

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