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  1. What are psychiatric disorders?
    • - mental health disorders
    • - abnormal patterns of mood, behaviour or thought leading to distress, disability, or risk of harm (to self or others)
    • - approx 25% of all people will suffer a psychiatric disorder at some point in their life
  2. What are most commonpsychiatric disorders?
    • - anxiety disorders (lifetime prevalence ~20-25%)- generalised anxiety, phobias, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • - mood disorders- depression (LP~5-10%)
    • - bipolar disorder (LP~ 1-4%)
    • - schizophrenia (LP1%)
  3. What is an emotion?
    • - integrated set of changes in physiological and behavioural function and feeling, that offers survival advantage to the organism
    • Stimulus which results in-feelings, behaviour, autonomic function, endocrine function, inflammatory status
  4. What are the two ways we can categories emotions?
    • - negative
    • - positive
  5. What are negative emotions?
    • - anxiety
    • - fear
    • - terror
    • - frustration
    • - anger
    • - rage
    • - sadness
    • - grief
  6. What are positive emotions?
    • - relief
    • - pleasure
    • - elation
    • - joy
    • - ecstasy
  7. Which brain regions are most important to the expression of emotional states
    • - hypothalamus- stimulation of this can trigger complex response patterns
    • - limbic system (prefrontal cortex and amygdala)
    • - diffuse neuromodulatroy systems
  8. What controls the expressions hypothalamic programs?
    higher centres in the brain such as the cortex
  9. What discovered the functions of the frontal lobe
    • gage-where that bar goes through that guys head
    • it showed:
    • - poorly controlled, emotional behaviour- quick to display angry, aggressive responses
    • - consistent with more recent studies of pts with prefrontal cortex damage
  10. What is the prefrontal cortext regarded as?
    • - part of a network of structures referred to as the limbic system
    • key components include:
    • - prefrpntal lobe
    • - rostral temporal lobe
    • - hippocampus
    • - hypothalamus
    • - amygdala
  11. What does the amygdala do?
    - help people interpret emoitions
  12. What is the amygdala a critical to response?
    stimulus- thalamus- angdala (ingerited and learnt emotional memories, critical to repsoning to rapid threats)- hypothalamus (action programes)- integrated behavioural, autonomic and endocrine response
  13. What does the prefrontal cortex do?
    • - modulates the activity of the amygdala center
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  14. What is though to be the link to anxiety disorders and depression?
    • abnormalitites in the activity of brain structures in the control of emotions
    • cortex, amygdala and thalamic activity is abnormal in depressed pts
  15. Depression
    • - normally preceded by unresolved stress (vulnerability- stress hypothesis of psychiatric disorders)
    • - abnormal sleep patterns
    • - abnormal diurnal heart rate variability cycles
    • - abnormal plateet reactivity
    • - abnormal immune function
  16. The diffuse modulatory transmitter systems are considered to play important- but poorly understood- roles in the control of the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex
  17. Where and what is the pontine noradrenaline system?
    • - locus coeruleus in the pons
    • - several different types of antidepressants are assumed to treat depression by altering the activity of this system
  18. Serotonin system
    • - brainstem raphe nuclei
    • - most commonly used antidepressants (the SSRIs) are assumed to treat depression by altering the activity of this system
  19. Midbrain dopamine system
    • - origin- substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area
    • - currently the focus of great interest with regard to depression and addiction
  20. Schizophrenia
    • - onset typically between 15-25
    • - not a single illness. A cluster of illnesses characterised by disturbances in-thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behaviours
    • - schizophrenics suffer psychotic episods, where positive symptoms are apparent- confused thinking (everyday thoughts dont join up properly), delusions- (false beliefs, not held by others of the same cultural background), hallucinations- (hear, see, fell, smell or taste something that is not actually there)
    • - at other times negative symptoms will predominate- blunted emotional responsiveness, poverty of speech, apathy, social withdrawal
  21. What brain areas are thought to be involved in schizophrenia?
    • - pivotal structures are the prefrontal cortex
    • - midbrain dopamine neurons that project into the prefrontal cortex
  22. What does the prefrontal cortex do?
    - modulated dopaminergic input to itself, and limbic system
  23. Neuro- development hypothesis schizophenia
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