GCSE Biology

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GCSE Biology
2012-06-03 10:03:30

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  1. what is the process of embryo transplants
    • sperm cells are taken from best bulls
    • eggs cells taken from best cow
    • sperm cells and egg cells fuse in a dish
    • each fertilised egg grows into an embryo
    • embryo cells seperated
    • the identical embryos grow into identical cows
    • each embryo is implanted into a different host mother
  2. adult cell cloning
    • cells from the udder of an adult sheep x are taken nucleus is extracted
    • unfertilised egg cell taken and the nucleus removed from sheep y
    • nucleus from sheep x in inserted into the empty cell of sheep y
    • an electric shock causes the egg cell to start dividing to form a ball of cells (an embryo)
    • the embryo is placed in a surrogate mother
  3. how do we produce insulin using genetic engineering
    • insulin gene cut out of human chromosme using enzymes
    • human insulin gene inserted into bacterial DNA
    • bacterial DNA inserted back into bacterium
    • bacterium reproduces asexually
    • insulin gene makes insulin
    • insulin extracted and purified for use
  4. tissue culture
    • a small peice of tissue is taken
    • placed in hormones to help it grow
    • after about 12 weeks roots and shoots start to appear
    • the new organism is planted
  5. cuttings
    • cuttings are taken eachw ith a new bud on
    • the cuttings are keept in moist conditions until they are ready to plant