GCSE Biology

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Author:
ghoran
ID:
157021
Filename:
GCSE Biology
Updated:
2012-06-03 10:55:16
Tags:
energy flow
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revision
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  1. why do food chains rarely have more than 5 trophic levels
    because there wont be much biomass lefy for the tertiary consumer because energy is lost at each trophic level of the food chain for respiration , faeces , and other factrors
  2. tiny green plants (phytoplankton) vvv shrimp vvv cod vvv seal

    explain , as fully as you can why the conversion of shrimp biomass into cod biomass is more efficient than that of cod biomass into seal biomass
    • seals are mammals and they have to maintain a contstant body temp so less energy is stored as biomass
    • cod is cold blooded so it does not have to maintain a constant body temp
    • there is less waste biomass such as bones , when the seal eats the cod than when the cod eats the shrimp
  3. th food chain for greenbank farm is
    vegeatation ===> humans
    the food chain for oaktree farm is
    vegetation ===> animals ===> humans
    explain why greenbank farm is much more efficient at meeting human food energy requirements
    • there are less trophic levels
    • so the energy from the plant can be transferred directly to humans
    • less energy lost be food passing through organisms
    • organisms would have lost energy through respiration , feaces , movement
  4. how do intensive afrming methods seek to minimise energy loss
    • animals are keept inside which restricts their space and loss of energy through movement
    • temperature is regulated so less energy is wasted through maintaining their body temperature
  5. how are nutrients returned to the soil that the plants used to make proteins and carbohydrates during photosynthesis
    • when plants are eaten the carbohydrates of the plant are taken by the animal
    • when the animal dies decomposers and detritus feeders feed on the animal
    • they digest the complex organic structures
    • since they have no gut , digestion happens outside their cells and then the nutrients are absorbed
    • some simpler nutrients are left in the soil
    • allowing planst to absorb them through their roots as the process restarts
  6. materials decay because they are broken down by
    microorganisms
  7. microorganisms are more active in ..... ... ..... conditions
    • warm
    • moist
    • aerobic
  8. the traditional way of managing garden and vegetable kitchen waste is in the
    compost heap in the garden
  9. in a compost heap the waste is piled up and
    microbial decay breaks it down into compost that you can add to the garden soil
  10. the traditional way of managing garden and vegetable kitchen waste is in the compost heap in the garden . in a compost heap the waste is piled up and microbial decay breaks it down into compost that you can add to the garden soil . many councils now collect this as
    green waste and make compost on a large sacle in a process called windrow composting
  11. windrow composting needs
    a lot of space , and the compost must be turned reguarly to keept the oxygen level high , but it doesnt need any special equipment
  12. other councils collect all garden and kitchen waste , including meat together . By law this needs
    composting in large containers until the meat waste is broken down , in a process called in-vessel composting . Composting is then completed using the windrow process
  13. an advantage of in-vessel composting is that
    • conditions can be monitored inside the containers
    • and maintained at the correct temperature and moisture levels for more rapid decay in the early stages
    • the higher temperature will also kill pathogens and the seeds of weed plants
  14. another process uses anerobic digestion by the methanogenic bacteria that cause problems on landfill sites . Food waste is put into huge
    digesters and ir is excluded . The methanogens break down the material and produce methane and other gases . Methane is collected and burnt to produce heat , which can be used to heat buildings and produce electricity

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