pharma test 2 ch 2.txt

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  1. Drug action
    The physicochemical interaction between the drug molecule and molecules in the body that alters a physiological process in the body by one of three methods
  2. Endogenous molecules
    produced or grown from within an organism
  3. Exogenous molecules
    originating from outside an organism
  4. Three methods of drug interactions
    replacement, interruption, potentation
  5. Replacement
    exogenous drug replaces an endogenous substance; receptor agonist; Bethanechol (Urecholine) - a nonselective muscarinic receptor agonist used to treat uriniary retention
  6. Interruption
    drug that interferes with a physiological process; receptor agonist; Cetirizine (Zyrtec) - a selective histamine 1 receptor antagonist used to treat allergic symptoms
  7. Potentation
    drug enhances a physiological process; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); Fluoxetine (Prozac) - SSRI used to treat depression
  8. Observable consequence example
    penicillin interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis causing death of the bacteria; Tylenol elevates the pain threshold (analgesia) and inhibits formation and release of prostaglandins in the CNS (antipyresis); action of epinephrine on blood pressure and heart rate
  9. Inotropy
    cardiac muscle contraction
  10. Ligand
    drug, compound
  11. Three phases of drug activity
    pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
  12. Pharmaceutical
    occurs after drgu is given, involving disintegration/dissolution of dosage form
  13. Pharmacokinetic
    absorption, metabolism, distribution and elimination of a drug
  14. Pharmacodynamic
    effect of the drug on the body
  15. Percent of drugs administered orally
  16. Where in GI tract most absorption occurs
    small intestines
  17. Rate-limiting rank order
    lipid soluble - water soluble - suspension solution - powder - capsules - tablets - coated tablets - enteric-coated tablets
  18. Four phases of pharmacokinetics
    absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination
  19. Three mechanisms of drugs entering bloodstream or cell
    passive diffusion, active diffusion (carrier-mediated) and pinocytosis
  20. Passive diffusion
    no energy required, how most drugs work
  21. Active diffusion
    carrier molecule and energy required; glucose, amino acids, 5-fluorouaracil
  22. Pinocytosis
    process of engulfing a drug and pulling it across the membrane which fuses with lysosymes in the cell taht hydrolyze or breakdown contents of the vesicle; Vitamins A, D, E & K
  23. Four factors affecting drug absorption
    pH, solubility, routes of administration, circulation
  24. Bioavailability
    percentage of dose that reaches the blood stream (20-40% orally)
  25. Nine factors affecting bioavailability
    dose form, route, GI tract, food, drugs, liver metabolism, concentration, cell membrance, surface area
  26. Three factors affecting drug distribution
    level of plasma protein, blood flow, competing drugs
  27. Biotransformation
    drug metabolism; converted into more water-soluble form in liver which is then excreted by the kidneys
  28. First-pass effect
    metabolism of orally administred drugs by gastrointestinal and hepatic enzymes, resulting in a significant reduction of the amount of unmetabolized drug reaching the systemic circulation
  29. Seven other routes by which drugs are eliminated from body
    biliary and fecal (Orlistat - Alli - lipase inhibitors used in obesity), lungs (inhaled anesthetics and alcohol), breast milk (narcotics), sweat (anti-epileptics, amphetamine), saliva (penicillin, phentoin, lithium), hair (methamphetamine, methoxyphenamine), skin (benzoic acid, salicylic acid, alcohol, antipyrine, heavy metals)
  30. Pharmacodynamics
    effect of drugs on a body
  31. Seven factors affecting pharmaodynamics
    receptor theory, categories of drug action, therapeutic index and therapeutic range, peak and trough levels, side effects, adverse effects, contraindications
  32. Side effect
    problem that occurs when treatment goes beyond the desired effect or occurs in addition to the desired therapeutic effect
  33. Fourteen different side effects
    gender, environment, time of administration, pathologic state, idiosyncracy, tolerance, drug dependence, drug interaction, synergism, potentiation, placebo effect, pharmacogenetic effect, allergic reaction, toxic effect, tachyphylaxis
  34. Adverse effect
    a harmful or abnormal result that may be caused by adminstation of a medication and may be indicated by an untoward result such as by illness or death
  35. Contraindication
    a condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable
  36. Two types of contraindications
    absolute, relative
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pharma test 2 ch 2.txt
Ch 2 pharma quiz
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