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Walter A. Shewhart
statistical process control, designed to reduce variation in processes. Identified two types of variations - result of a chance and result of a definable cause. Also developed the "act of control" which evolved into the plan-do-check-act cycle
W. Edwards Deming
"Out of the Crisis" (1983) ID common-cause variation (chance) and special-cause variation (cause). Quality must be built into a product. Did not believe in performance appraisals, managment by objectives or work standards. Developed a 14 point plan to help executives lead their organizations
Jospeh M. Juran
Claimed that managment could control over 80% of quality defects by using three central principles - planning, control & improvment. Training and hands-on managment are basic requirements for meeting the needs of customers
Armand F. Feigenbaum
Built on Deming, emphasized the necessity of integrating the functions of quality control. Planning, design and setup of a product must be integrated with its production and distribution which must be integrated with training , data analysis and use feedback. Customers and suppliers are all incorporated into the total quality concept.
Philip B. Crosby
Did not focus on statistics, proposed concept of zero defect and conformance to requirements. Four absolutes of quality: do it right the first time, defect prevention is the only acceptable approach, zero defects is the only performance standard, the cost of quality is the only measure of quality
Quality begins at the top and funnels down through the organization. Developed the Joiner triangle: quality to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty, scientific approach to root out underlying causes of problems, all-one-team method to encourage breakdown of barriers by employees and create a buy-in to improvement, ownership in the process and commitment to quality
Quality has multiple dimensions that are measured using various types of indicators: structure indicators (attributes of setting), process indicators (actions by which services are provided) and outcome indicators (actual results of care, including patient and family satisfaction). Quality also has a technical and interpersonal dimension - technical for providing service and having the skills to carry it out and interpersonal for communcation and social attributes necessary to interact with patients (and families)
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