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Mechanisms of Defense
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by actions rather than reflections or feelings. Defensive acting out is not synonymous with bad behavior because it requires evidence that the behavior is related to emotional conflicts.
eal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by refusing to acknowledge some painful aspect of external reality or subjective experience that would be apparent to others. The term psychotic denial is used when there is gross impairment in reality testing.
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by transferring a feeling about, or a response to, one object onto another (usually less threatening) substitute object.
i.e. take it out on someone else
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by attributing exaggerated positive qualities to others.
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by the excessive use of abstract thinking or the making of generalizations to control or minimize disturbing feelings.
i.e. reasoning it out
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by falsely attributing to another his or her own unacceptable feelings, impulses, or thoughts.
i.e. I'm not crazy YOU are crazy. I'm not sad YOU are sad
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by concealing the true motivations for his or her own thoughts, actions, or feelings through the elaboration of reassuring or self-serving but incorrect explanations.
i.e. lying to yourself as to why somethign happened
Deal with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by expelling disturbing wishes, thoughts, or experiences from conscious awareness. The feeling component may remain conscious, detached from its associated ideas.
compartmentalizing opposite affect states and failing to integrate the positive and negative qualities of the self or others into cohesive images.
Self and object images tend to alternate between polar opposites: exclusively loving, powerful, worthy, nurturant, and kind – or exclusively bad, hateful, angry, destructive, rejecting, or worthless.
- Topographical Model
- thoughts, feelings and fantasies in conscious awareness
- smallest and least important, preception
- Topographical Model
- all those ideas not in awareness at the moment but easily accessible to awareness (think about an early childhood scene)
- maintains repressive barrier and impose Demands of reality of wishes and instincts located in Unconsious
- primary process; its principle aim is to facilitate wish fulfillment and instinctual discharge
- Structural Model
- origins, raw
- Id is the seat of impulses
- Structural model
- The outside is ego which is affected by the external environment but is still part of id
- The ego is the seat of all experience
- Superego retains essential features of the introjected persons
- Consience and moral, envrionment built
- Slip of the tongue
- repressed unconscious
- A- Appearance - Cyanosis
- P- Pulse - Pulse above 80
- G–Grimace Loudness of cry
- A–Activity -muscle tone of the limbs, full flexion= full score
- R–Respirations - breath sounds
- 0-10 total; 0-2 per category
Secondary asphyxia - newborn
????? what was this
NORMAL REFLEXES AT BIRTH
- Rooting --> looking for milk, turning towards side of stimulation
- Sucking -->
- Moro - open arm--> close hand-->close arm in response to people
- head control, rolls over, social smile
- only recognize things within 12 inches
- sit without support, babbles, crawls
- Object permenance
- Vision develops from 12 inches to normal adult range ((play with feet))
- stands without support
- single words
- walks backwards
- walks up steps
1-3 word sentences
- This is a fearful response when the parent attempts to leave the child. Separation
- anxiety usually peaks at age 15 months.
They are ready for school, when they are past this phase.
The child displays a fearful response such as crying or clinging to the parent in response to strangers.
- Infancy 0 - 1.5yrs
- Childhood 1.5 - 12 --> into toddler, pre-schoo l, school age
- Adolesent 12 - adulthood
Oppositional behavior -> seperation from attachment and seperation from mother
too much stimuli
- Infant/Toddler play form
- Social interaction without taking turn
- can't follow rules yet and not really playing with each other rather than just playing near each other
Toddler Intellectual development
- attention span is about 3 min
- Understanding of number, time, space and direction
bladder and GI control
- Day time bladder by 3-4 yrs
- night time bladder by 6-7 yrs
- Voluntary sphincter control first followed by toilet training
- recognition only
- no gender roles
- 4-6 yrs
- fluent in language
- symbolic and egocentric thinking
- Expression of emotions in regards to self but no empathy
- Can't distinguish between fact and fiction
- interactive group learning--> understanding rules
- imaginary friend normal --> should dissapear by age 9
- --> used to experss own feelings
Pre-school gender roles
- Understanding and curiosity of gender anatomical difference
- but no secondary sexual satisfaction
- 6-12 yrs
- logical reasoning and formal learning
- Conservation of mass (next stage from object permenance) ---> mass regardless of position or form
- Strong peer relationship and development of empathy
- Transitional stage from dependency childhood to independence
- Again, oppositional behaviors to chanllenge
- From logical reasoning to abstract
- Application of logicaly conclusions to different contexts and different situations