- Learning involves cultural tools (books, language etc)
- Learning embedded in interpersonal relationships, in turn embedded in social and cultural systems.
- Saijo (1999) - learning is an internal process combined with a use of tools
- Through enculturation we learn specific cultural practices and learn to behave in ways consistent with our culture
- Complex inter-relationships exist between tools and power and authority
- Offers alternative view of learning
- Aims to make learning more effective