DSE212 Key Terms 3

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DSE212 Key Terms 3
2012-06-09 14:22:52
DSE212 Key Terms

DSE212 Key Terms 3
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  1. Behaviourism
    • John Watson
    • Psychology should be based on observable evidence
    • Little Albert – rat fear
    • Comparative approach
    • Generalise findings from one species to another
    • Learning - classical and instrumental/operant conditioning
    • B.F.Skinner
    • Studied effect of reinforcement and punishment on frequency of behaviour in response to stimuli

    • Importance
    • Hugely influential
    • Offers viable explanations for many observations
    • Behaviour modification i.e. phobias
  2. Sociocultural perspective
    • Learning involves cultural tools (books, language etc)
    • Learning embedded in interpersonal relationships, in turn embedded in social and cultural systems.
    • Saijo (1999) - learning is an internal process combined with a use of tools
    • Through enculturation we learn specific cultural practices and learn to behave in ways consistent with our culture
    • Complex inter-relationships exist between tools and power and authority

    • Importance
    • Offers alternative view of learning
    • Aims to make learning more effective
  3. Operant conditioning
    • Operants - spontaneous everyday behaviours
    • Form of instrumental conditioning pioneered by B.F.Skinner (learning is result of association between behaviour and consequence
    • Pioneered Skinner Box
    • Creates link between one of these natural behaviours and a desired outcome through reinforcement (negative or positive) e.g. lever pressing/food pellets

    • Importance
    • Important research tool
    • Relatively efficient and flexible
    • Used in classroom behaviour modification
  4. Classical conditioning
    • Behaviourist perspective
    • A form of learning, based on innate reflexes
    • Ivan Pavlov’s discover of learning through association theory
    • Proved efficacy of neutral stimulus in certain pairings
    • John Watson showed effects in humans – Little Albert

    • Importance
    • Increased understanding of learning
    • Important historical role (Watson - challenging introspection)
    • Important in therapy e.g. phobia treatment
  5. Category learning
    • Cognitive approach
    • Sees learning as information processing
    • Learn general relationships (i.e. concepts)

    • Importance
    • Emphasizes role of cognitive processes in learning
    • Demonstrates influence of past experience.