Patho

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Author:
jessiekate22
ID:
157093
Filename:
Patho
Updated:
2012-06-03 18:04:57
Tags:
Dysfunctional Pain
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Description:
lecture
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  1. What is pain?
    • - an unpleasanat sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
    • - pain is a perceptual phenomena
    • - pain is a defensive mechanism
  2. What is a nociception and pain?
    • - nocicpetion is signalling in the nervous system resulting from tissue damage
    • - pain is the consequence of nociception; its a subjective feeling- a perception
  3. Can there be a nociception without pain?
    • - a person or animal can have tissue damage (nociception) BUT these sensations dont cause psychological distress (eg anaesthesia, alcohol intoxication, hypnosis, masochists who are aroused by pain)
    • - if there is no distress- there is no pain
  4. What happens after tissue damage- origin of nociception
    • - signal generation (reception/transduction)- nociceptors convert mechanical os chemical signals into neural signlas AP
    • - communication (transmission)- ascending neural pathways to the brain
    • - perception/emotions/conceptualisation- higher brain levels
  5. What are pain receptors?
    • - nociceptors
    • - free nerve endings of primary sensory neurones
    • - 3 classes of nociceptors- thermo, chemo, mechanical (they seem to be associated with sharp, pricking pain

    - polymodal- activated by a variety of stimuli- mechanical stimuli, chemical stimuli and hot (>45*) or cold stimuli. Found in almost all tissues
  6. What substances activate nociceptors?
    • Pain pridcuing (algogenic) chemical include:
    • - potassium
    • - Serotonin
    • -Bradykinin
    • histamine
    • - prostalandins- damages cells- arachidonic acid
    • - capsaicin
    • - damaged cells
    • - platelets
    • - plasma
    • - mast cells
  7. What is the nociceptor reflex?
  8. What is the fast pain pathway?
    - neospinothalamic
  9. What is the slow pain pathway?
    - paleospinothalamic
  10. What do the two different types of pain pathwyas differ in?
    • - speed of transmission
    • - type of sensation produced
    • - neurotransmitters
  11. What are the differences between fast and slow nociceptive pathways?
  12. How is pain stimuli processed in the brain?
  13. What is nocicptive pain?
    • - no nervous system lesion or inflammation
    • - stimulus- dependent- evoked by high intensity stimuli
    • - protects by signalling potential tissue damage
  14. What is inflammatory pain?
    • - active inflammation
    • - spontaneous and stimulus- dependent pain
    • - senspry amplification
    • - evoked by low and high intensity stimuli
    • - protects by producing pain hypersensitivity during healing
  15. What is dysfunctional pain?
    • - no known structural nervous system lesion or active peripheral inflammation
    • - spontaneous and stimulus dependent pain
    • - sensory amplification
    • - evoked by low and high intensity
    • - present with lack of stimulus
    • maladaptive and potentially persistent
  16. What is neuropathic pain?
    • - nervous systems lesion or disease
    • - marked by neuroimmune response
    • - spontaneous and stimlus dependent pain
    • - sensory amplification
    • - evoked by low and high intensity stimuli
    • - maladaptive and commonly persistent
    • - abnormal amplification maintained
    • -independent of the lsion or disease
  17. What is phantom pain?
    • - perception of pain in an absent lime
    • - possible mecahisms- activity in severe nerves
  18. What is referred pain?
    • - perceived at a site different from its origin
    • - but innervated by the same spinal segment

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