Urinary, Neuro, Endocrine, Muscle, Skeleton, Skin

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  1. Urinary Tract Infection Pathophysiology
    Infection of the urethra that can ascend throughout the tract
  2. UTI Etiology
  3. Pain, dysuria, and signs of inflammation are the signs and symptoms of what disease?
    Urinary tract infections
  4. List the treatment modalities for UTIs
    antibiotics, prophylactic treatment, cranberry juice
  5. Obstruction (stones of inflammation), kidney damage, recurrent infections are the seq/ccx of what disease?
  6. What is pyelonephritis?
    Infection of one or both of the kidneys caused by microorganism.
  7. What are the signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis?
    flank pain, dysuria, signs of inflammation/infection, renal casts
  8. What is used to diagnose and treat pyelonephritis?
    urinalysis and antibiotics
  9. What is the pathophysiology of Acute Poststreptococcal Glmerolonephritis?
    Respiratory infection with strep -> Antigen-antibody complexes caught get caught in the kideny and cause inflammation
  10. What 2 other diseases does acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis act like?
    Type 3 hypersensitivity and rheumatic heart disease
  11. What is ASO and what does its presence indicate?
    Antistreptolysin O, it is an antibody that indicates the presence of strep. This test is a diagnostic tool for APG and rhumatic heart disease.
  12. At what age does acute poststreptococcal nephritis usually present and after what event?
    3-7 yoa and after a strep infection
  13. What is urolithiasis?
    kidnye stone
  14. What are the routes of cause for acute renal failure?
    neprotoxins damage the loop of henle, ischemia decreases flow, decrease in glomular filtration rate, increase solutes in PCT and neprhon loop that causes obstruction, swelling, necrosis, phyelonephritis
  15. Pain, oligura, and anuria are signs and symptoms for...
    acute renal failure
  16. The slow loss of nephrons causes...
    chronic renal failure
  17. What is the etiology for chronic renal failure?
    congenital, toxins, microorganisms
  18. Anemia, anorexia, and fatigue accompanied by polyuria that leads to oliguria are the signs and symptoms of what disease?
    chronic renal failure
  19. What disease is also known as a "mini-stroke?"
    transient ischemic attack
  20. What is the pathophysiology of a transient ischemic attack?
    occulsion of an artery from embolus, vascular spasms, auto-regulation -> tissue necrosis (death)
  21. What are the signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks?
    short episodes lasting 1-2 hrs of muscle weakness, visual disturbances, numbness, confusion
  22. What is the one seq/ccx of TIAs?
  23. A cerebrovascular accident is also known by what name?
  24. What is the pathophysiology of a cerebrovascular accident?
    A thrombus, embolus, hemorrhage cause a lack of blood flow, this blockage causes an increase in intrcranial pressure, in the end causing tissue necrosis
  25. What diseases can cause a stroke?
    Arteriosclerosis, Hemorrhage, secondary hypertension
  26. What are the treatment modalities for a stroke?
    TPA, supportive oxygen, physical therapies, treating the underlying problem
  27. What infection is caused when the microbes pass through the blood brain barrier at the olfactory nerve?
  28. What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis?
    headache, back pain, stiff neck, photophobia, stupor, vomiting, irritability
  29. How is meningitis diagnosed?
    CSF culture, microscopic exam
  30. What infection can cause neurological defects and lead to a coma?
  31. Multiple sclerosis is a ______ attack on the myelin of what part of the nervous system?
    immune, on the central nervous system
  32. What causes MS?
    currently no known cause, idiopathic
  33. What disease affects the dopamine producing cells?
    Parkinson's disease
  34. What are the signs/symptoms of parkinson's disease?
    muscle weakness, muscle aching, tremors, muscle rigidity, and gait changes
  35. What type of Parkinson's disease is caused by unknown reasons and what type is cased by trauma or a microorganism?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  36. Treatment of what disease involves dopamine replacement?
    Parkinson's disease
  37. What is the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease?
    amyloid plaques develop, tangles, cortical atrophy
  38. Which neurological disease can only be diagnosed at autopsy?
    Alsheimer's disease
  39. What is the pathophysiology of Huntington's Disease?
    Decreased GABA levels, degeneration of basal ganglia and frontal cortex
  40. What neurological disease causes restless, rapid, jerky arm and face movements, intellectual impairment, and will later cause personality changes and rigidity?
    Huntington's Disease
  41. Which neurological disease can only be diagnosed with genetic testing?
    Huntungton's Disease
  42. In diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to produce _______.
  43. What is the pathophysiology of Type 1 diabetes?
    Insulin levels decrease, blood glucose increases, urine glucose increases, fluid loss increases
  44. Fluid loss, frequent urination, increased appetite, weight loss are all signs and symptoms of _______
  45. What are the complications of diabetes?
    hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, vascular problems, neuropathy, infections, cataracts
  46. What is the pathophysiology for Type 2 diabetes?
    Insulin is insufficient for the body needs
  47. Diet, exercise, insulin injections, and drugs of NIDDM are treatments for what disease?
    Type 2 diabetes
  48. What is Grave's Disease?
    • hyperthyroidism
    • an increase in T3 and T4
    • a decrease in TSH and TRH
  49. Increased T3 and T4, goiter, flsuhed and warm skin, heat intolerance, and expothalmos are the signs and symptoms of _______.
  50. What are the treatment modolities of Grave's Disease?
    radioactive iodine, surgical removal, anti-thyroid drugs.
  51. Hypothroidism and hypoparathyroidism are the seq/ccx of which disease?
    Grave's/ hyperthyroidism
  52. Hashimoto's Disease is also known as _______
  53. What is the etiology of hyper and hypo thyroidism?
    immunological dysfunction
  54. Pale cool skin and cold intolerance are indicators of which thyroid disease?
    • hypothyroidism
    • Hashimoto's disease
  55. Cushing's Disease
  56. Which disease is characterized by increased gluccocorticoids?
    • Cushing's Disease
    • Hyperadrenal
  57. What is the etiology of Cushing's Disease?
    iatrogenic or malignancy
  58. Round puffy face, buffalo hump, fragile skin, delayed healing, immunosupression, and hypertension are the signs and symptoms of ________.
    • Cushing's disease
    • hyperadrenal
  59. How are the diseases of the endocrine system diagnosed?
    hormone levels
  60. Hypoadrenal is also known by what name?
    Addison's Disease
  61. What is the etiology of Addison's Disease?
    • autoimmune
    • immunological dysfunction
  62. Is hyperpigmentationa symptom of hyper or hypo adrenal disease?
  63. Increased bone modeling, increased bone reabsorption, which then leads to thin fragile bones is the pathophysiology found in which disease?
  64. Spontaneous fractures can be seen with which disease?
  65. What causes muscular dystrophy?
    it is genetic. x-linked recessive gene
  66. Which disease involves a defect in the protein dystrophin?
    muscular dystrophy
  67. In MD, the muscle is replaced by what?
    fat and CT
  68. The Gower Maneuver is a sign of ________
  69. Creatine kinase levels are used to diagnose which disease?
  70. Why is respiratory insufficiency a complication of MD?
    All of the muscles are degenerating and breaking down. Eventually the diaphragm does too
  71. What disease is diagnosed by pain being present at 18 trigger points?
  72. What is the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis?
    Cartilage damage, cartialge surface becomes rough, tissue damage, bone replaces damaged cartilage, inflammation
  73. Distinguish between Osteoarthritis and Rhuematoid Arthritis
    In RA joints will be swollen, impaired and/or fixed. OA is just limited movement
  74. What is the etiology of Rhuematoid Arthritis?
    autoimmune, immune dysfunction
  75. Aching and stiff joints, joints impaired by swelling, fixed joints are the steps of signs and symptoms of which disease?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  76. Why is Rheumatoid Arthritis treated with immunosuppressants?
    Because it is caused by a malfunctioning immune system
  77. What is the main difference between Malignant Melanoma and Squamous Cell carcinoma?
    Melanoma affects Nevus (moles) and Squamous cell is in the general skin
  78. What nucleotide changes because of sun exposure to cause melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma?
    Thymine, changes, thymine dimer
  79. What is benign prostatic hyperplasia? What causes it?
    It is caused by aging, degenerative changes. It happens with hormonal changes and then the prostate grows in size.
  80. What are the signs and symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?
    Urinary obstruction (hesitancy, dribbling, low force), incomplete emptying, frequent UTIs, nocturia
  81. Is it increased or decreased levels of estrogen that cause hyperplasia of the prostate?
  82. Which 3 types of reproductive cancers present with a hard, painless, mass?
    Breast, prostatic, testicular
  83. Which 2 types of reproductive cancers are asymptomatic?
    ovarian and cervical
  84. What 2 STDs can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease as a complication?
    gonorrhoeae and chlamydia
  85. What is the pathophysiology of pelvic inflammatory disease?
    STD infection ascend into the pelvic cavity, the infection spreads to all the reproductive organs causing inflammation
  86. What is the most notable sequelae of PID?
    scaring which causes sterility
  87. What 3 STDs are caused by bacteria and what 2 are caused by viruses?
    • Bacteria: chlamydia, gonorrheae, syphilis
    • Virus: herpes, warts
  88. What virsus caused genital warts?
    human papiloma virus
Card Set:
Urinary, Neuro, Endocrine, Muscle, Skeleton, Skin
2012-06-04 21:00:56

Test 3
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