Belrea toxicology

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lynnsy
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157154
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Belrea toxicology
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2012-06-05 04:00:17
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vet sci 4 toxicology notes
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  1. Apomorphine
    • Emetic for dogs only
    • tablet given under eyelid
  2. Xylazine
    • Cats only
    • Emetic
    • IM
  3. Cephazolin
    • Cat emetic
    • quick IV bolus
  4. other emetics
    • Ipecac syrup
    • h2o2
    • Dish soap (1:8 with water)
  5. Emitic function
    • cause vomitting by either
    • -causing gastric irriation
    • -trigger vomit zone of the brain
  6. Tx for toxicosis (general)
    • Emisis
    • gastric lavage
    • activated charcoal
    • Cathartics
  7. Activated charcoal
    • Toxiban/ vetamix
    • TID/QID 2-3
    • vinds to toxin inhibiting Gi absorption
  8. Cathartics
    • -promote the clensing of the intestines
    • -used with a.charcoal
    • -give 30 mins after a. charcoal
    • -contraindicated w./ diarrhea, vomitting, neonates and gericatrics
  9. Bulk cathartic
    • stimulate evacuation by ^ fecal volume
    • -Psyllium methycellulose
    • -Bran
    • -Metamucil
  10. Lubricating cathartics
    softens feces and reduces friction

    Mineral oil
  11. Osmotic cathartics
    • ^ H2O content in intestine and ^ motility
    • -milk of magnesia
    • -Epsom salts
  12. Stimulating Catartics
    • Increase Peristalisis
    • -ducolax
  13. Chocolate Toxicity
    • Toxin: Theobromine
    • C/S
    • over stimulation of CNS, Cadiotoxicty, Renal Failure

    anxiousness,ataxia,V/D,tachycardia,tachyarrythmia, Death, Urinary incontenance hematuria, seizures, coma, abdominal pain

    • Tx: general toxin procedure
    • +/- diazipam
  14. First Gen. Rodenticides
    • Warfarin
    • ---Decon
    • C/S
    • -lethargy ,V/D, anorexia, hemorrhage, melena ,bruising (petichea), pale MM, dyspnea
  15. Cholecalciferol
    • 2nd Gen rodenticide
    • -quintox, Rampage, Rat-B-Gone
    • C/S
    • -occur w/in 30 min
    • -Mineralization of soft tissues:kidneys Gi, Heart
    • ---Acute renal failure

    Tx: TX: Fluid diuresis, furosimide (lasix), Prednisone, Salmon Calcitonin
  16. Bromethalin
    • 2nd Gen.
    • -assult, vengence, trounce
    • C/S: ataxia, seizures, coma, death w/in 10-24 hrs

    TX: Decontamination, whole blood transfusions, Vit. K
  17. Acetominphen in Cats
    • C/S
    • -vomit, salivation, facial and paw edema, tachypnea,dyspna,muddy brown MM, death w/in 18-36 hrs

    • Antidote; N-acetylcystine (mucomist)
    • Cimetidine-helps support the liver
    • Vit. C
  18. Acetominophen in Dogs
    • causes hepatitius
    • C/S lethargy, anorexia, vomit, abdominal pain

    • Tx: Decontaminatio
    • Cimetidine, Vit C
  19. Lead toxicity
    Batteries,paint,shot gun pellets, fishing sinkers

    C/S: GI: vomit, anorexia, abdominal pain Neuro: anxious, seziures , ataxia, blindness

    • Tx: remove the lead, hydate to promote renal failure,
    • Chelators-molecules bind to metal
    • EDTA
    • Thiamine
  20. Zinc Toxicosis
    Pennys, oxide ointment, electrical equip, diaper rash ointment

    • C/S: acute: vomitting and cns depression
    • Chronic: hemolysis, Renal Failure, icterus

    tx: remove the zinc, EDTA, supportive care
  21. Ethylene Glycol
    Anti-freeze, color film processing solution

    • C/S 1. 30mins-12hrs animal appears drunk
    • 2. 12-24hrs tachycardia, tachipnea
    • 3. 24-72hrs signs of renal failure
    • Tx: 20% ethanol solution
  22. lillies
    toxic to cats, causes renal failure
  23. poinsettias
    causes GI upset
  24. Black widow
    C/S: Pain @ bite, abdominal rigidity/cramps, Dyspnea, vomitting/ataxia , +/- paralysis Cats may die to abdomen paralysis of the abdomen

    tx: antivenom, benedryl, valium +/- Vent. support
  25. Brown Recluse
    C/S: localized itching, blister/bleb , red white and blue lesion, fever, tissue nauseam, tissue necrosis, voided urine that can be dark pink to red color

    tx: clean wound, supportive care, analgesics, O2 therapy , sx excision
  26. Xylitol toxicity
    Sugar substitute

    • C/S: 15-30mins
    • ---weakness, ataxia, depression, hypoglycemia, hypokaliemia, seizures, coma, liver damage

    Tx: decontamination, dextrose/sugar, iv dextrose, iv potassium, moniter liver fx
  27. what is shock
    causes sever sudden hypotension
  28. C/S of shock
    • changes in pulse quality
    • decreased tissue perfusion
    • increased HR
    • hypothermia
    • hypoxia
    • decreased mentation
    • changes in CRT and MM color
  29. Compensated shock
    • pt uses compensitory mechanisms to improve cardiac output
    • c/s
    • rapid crt
    • increased HR and RR
  30. Decompensated shock
    • pt requires medical intervention
    • c/s
    • increased hr
    • decreased pulse quality
    • muddy mucus membrane
    • depression
  31. Irreversable shock
    pt dies no matter what

    • c/s
    • -lost > 40% blood volume
    • -extreme hypotensive
    • -tissue necrosis
  32. 4 Causes of shock
    • 1. Hypovolemic
    • 2. Neurogenic
    • 3. Cardiogenic
    • 4. Endotoxic/septic
  33. hypovolemic shock
    pt have low blood volume (hemorrage and dehydration) most common cause of shock

    pale white MM
  34. Neurogenic Shock
    dramatic loss in BP w/ no blood loss, brainstem damage, dark red MM
  35. Cardiogenic shock
    sever heart failure, zero tissue perfusion, pale mm
  36. Endotoxic/Septic shock
    • bacterial toxins cause vasodialation
    • brick read MM's
  37. What are two goals of shock Tx
    • 1 return cardiovascular parameters to norm
    • 2 optimal O2 delivery
  38. shock fluid therapy
    • corner stone of shock tx
    • replacement crystalloids
    • -shock dose 70-90 ml/kg (dog) bolus
    • 40-60 (cats)
    • hypertonic saline
    • -shock dose 3-5ml/kg over 3-5min
    • Colloids
    • -10-40 plasma
    • -5-10 ml/kg dog 2-3 cat hetastarch
  39. Shock O2 therapy
    • maintain o2 saturation
    • C/s=hypoxia
  40. Shock drug therapy
    • steroids-stabilize all membranes, improve cellular metabolism, decreased capillary permabiliy (leaking of fluids)
    • sympathomimetics-when fluids are not enough to increase BP
    • ---dopamine & Dobutamine
    • Analgesic
    • ---morphine NOT Acepromazine
  41. CVP
    Central venous pressure

    • measures hearts ability to pump fluids tthat returned to it
    • pre-load
  42. PCV Norms
    • Dog < 37%
    • Cat <30%
    • Cattle <24%
    • Horses < 32%
  43. Anemia
    reduction in circulating RBCs and Hg
  44. 3 Causes of anemia
    • 1. ^Rbc loss
    • 2. ^ destruction (hemolytic)
    • 3. decreased production ( aplastic)
  45. main concern of hemorrhage
    • hypovolemia
    • --shock
  46. Causes of Hemolysis
    • IMHA
    • PFK
    • PK
    • onion injestion
    • zinc toxicosis
    • ehrlichia canis
    • babesia
  47. PFK
    • Phosphofructokinase
    • -hereditary
    • -fragility of the RBCs
    • --Common in Springer spaniels
    • -Mild hemolysis
  48. PK
    • Pyruvate Kinase
    • -hereditary
    • -much more sever than PFK
    • common in
    • -westies
    • -basinjies
    • -beagles
    • death by age of 4
  49. Ineffective Erythropoesis
    • Nutritional deficencys
    • drugs
    • ---phamotodine
    • infection
    • chronic dz
    • organ disorders (kidneys)
    • bone marrow infiltration
  50. c/s of an anemic pt
    • tachycardia
    • tachipnea
    • bounding pulse
    • weakness
    • pale mm
    • palpate for splenomegly
  51. Blood film of anemic pt
    • spherocytes
    • agglutination
    • polychromasia
    • anisocytosis
  52. Coombs tst
    tsts for immune mediate anitbodie on rbc surface
  53. Platelet disorders
    • IMT
    • drugs
    • -heparin
    • -NSAIDS
    • -Asprin
    • Vonwillebran dz
    • Hemofillia A-lack clotting factor 8
    • Homefillia B-"""
    • DIC
    • rodenticide tox.
  54. IMT
    idiopathic causes antiplatelt production
  55. DIC
    • disseminated intravascular coagulation
    • -excellerated clotting response
    • -2ndary to anaphlaxis, rodenticides, neoplasia,trauma
  56. 3 catagories of resp. distress
    • Mild-increased RR and effort
    • Moderate/Sever-ncreased rate, moderate effort
    • Catastrophic-cyanotic increased RR, contraction of intercostal muscles w/ the abdominal push, foam or blood from trachea
  57. Dog postures
    sit w/ elbows abducted, extended head and neck pull back the corners of the mouth
  58. Inhale exhale ration (norm)
    (1:2)
  59. Large airway problem
    • I > E
    • stridor upon inhalation
  60. Small airway problem
    • consists of bronchi
    • I<E 1:6
    • large expiratory effort
    • wheezing
    • abdominal pain
  61. Pumonary Parenchyma (alveoli)
    • I=E
    • rapid shallow breathing
    • ^ effort on both I and E
  62. Pleural space Problems
    • rapid shallow breathing
    • barrel chested appearance
    • cheast and abdominal effort are asyncrinous
    • dull muffled heart sounds
  63. Feline bronchial DZ
    Small/lower airway dz

    causes- allergens, cleaning chems, infectious agents, usually idiopathic

    C/S I:E-1:6, excessive coughing and wheezing,

    tx: O2, steroids, bronchodialatiors, antibiotics, nebulizer
  64. Large and upper airway dzs
    • obstruction
    • structural deformities-artenoid hypertrophy
    • laryengeal paralysis (larpar)
  65. Tracheal dz's
    • obstruction
    • trauma
    • tracheal collapse
  66. Tracheal collapse
    • -weakening of cartlaginous rings in the trachea
    • --on insp. trachea baloons out, exp. collapses
    • --toy breeds

    tx-bronchodiators, cough depressants, anti-inflammatorys, SX: place a stent to maint. norm shape
  67. Gas exchange dz's
    • Pneumonia
    • pulmonary contusion
    • pulmonary edema
  68. Pneumonia
    inflam. of the lungs w/ consolidation

    • causes-fungal, viral, parasite, allergies
    • c/s-cough, muffled breath sounds, crackles and rales, lethergy, exercise intolerance
    • tx: antibiotics IV & nebulized, cautious iv fluids, thoraxic copage-pound on chest to losen up
  69. Pulmponary contusion
    • bruise and clot in the lungs
    • usually caused by trauma and leads to hemothorax
    • C/s: mild pain, dyspnea, edema, inability to move air
    • other complications: thorac laceration,diaphragmatic hernea, pneumothorax

    Tx: O2, diuretics (lasix) cautious fluid therapy
  70. Pulmonary Edema
    • fluid in the lungs and extravascular tissue
    • Causes: left sided HF, injury, sepsis 2ndary to kidney failure
    • C/s:restlessness, frothy fluid from the nose crackles couch, resp. acidosis, cyanosis

    tx: airway suction o2, diuretics (lasix), bronchodialtors
  71. Pleural cavity dzs
    • Pneumothorax
    • Pleural effusion
    • diaphragmatic hernia
    • flail chest
  72. Pneumothrax
    presence of enviornmental air in the pleural space

    • causes: trauma, spontaneous, usually caused by a puncture that builds up pressure and leads to a collapsed lung
    • C/S:restlessness, painful, dyspnea, cyanosis *decreased or no breath sounds*
    • tx: thoracocentesis w/ chest tube
  73. Pleural effusion
    • fluid between visceral pleura and parietal pleura
    • causes: all 2ndary: CHF, heartworm, neoplasia, infection, trauma,idopathic
    • C/s:dyspnea, restlessnes, cough, ^bronchial sounds,^abdominal effort
    • tx: pleural tap
  74. Diaphragmatic hernia
    C/s dyspnea, cyanosis, abdominal breathing, shock, or none

    tx: stabilaize, fluids and o2
  75. Flail Chest
    free floating rib from trauma

    c/s: pain, dyspnic, short shallow breath, *abnormal chest wall motion*

    tx: O2 analgesics, intercostal blocks, pressure wrap, cage rest
  76. physical ways to euthanize
    • Penetrating captive bolt
    • Blow to the head
    • gun shot
    • cervial dislocation
    • decapitation
  77. Normal Doppler
    • measures systolic BP
    • 80-13mmhg
  78. Norm pulse ox
    measures % of hemoglobin saturated w/ O2
  79. ECG leads
    • R. axillary-white
    • R. Inguinal-green
    • L. Axillary black
    • L.Inguinal red
    • Chest-tan or brown
  80. 3 things the <3 will do to compensate for decreased CO
    • 1. beat faster
    • 2.myocardium hypotrophy
    • 3. chambers dialate
  81. minimum lab database for dentals
    • CBC
    • chem panel
    • U/A
  82. What is Dopram-V
    doxapram hydrochloride

    resp. stimulant
  83. 5 steps in CPR
    • 1 Establish patient airway
    • 2 two sigh breaths
    • 3 compressions
    • 4 breath
    • 5 Drugs or Dfib
  84. PaO2
    • partial pressure o2 concentration
    • Norm 85-105mmhg
  85. what is PLT
    pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity

    Dx's pancreatitis

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