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What are 8 features that separate the Classical from Pre-Classical Symphony?
More emphasis on WW, brass and timpani (no longer just doubling or reinforcing strings)
Number of movements (4 vs. 3)
Instrumentation (strings and continue vs. full orchestra with pairs of flute, oboe, bassoon, timpani and sometimes clarinet and trumpet)
Scoring (strings no longer 3 parts, viola and cello independant from bass)
Developments feature motivic exploration via counterpoint, imitation or fugal exploration
Sonata Allegro form with firm 3 theme design (1st, 2nd, closing)
Polyphonic vs. homophonic. Themes with motivic design and motivic exploration
Monothematic movements vs. multiple themes and tunes with motivic design
Name and reason for the name of Haydn Symphony No. 44?
Haydn asked for slow movement to be played at his funeral.
Name 4 Haydn Symphonies with monothematic 1st movements.
- 103 in Eb Major (Drumroll)
- 104 in DM (London)
- 92 in GM (Oxford)
- 85 in BbM (The Queen)
Name 8 composers who influenced the young Mozart on his trips through Europe.
Haydn (both), JC Bach, Abel, Sammartini, Martini, Nardini, Clementi, Piccini (also Jommelli, Gossec, Gluck and Stamitz)
Which Symphonies did Haydn write for London and how many were there?
No. 93-104 (there were 12)
Which 6 of Haydn's London Symphonies had nicknames?
- 94- Suprise
- 96- Miracle
- 100- Military
- 101- Clock
- 103- Drum Roll
- 104- London
Describe general characterisitics of each of the 4 movements in Haydn's London Symphonies.
- 1st- sonata allegro form
- 2nd- variation forms
- 3rd- minuets
- 4th- sonata or sonata rondo
How did Haydn's instrumentation in the last 6 London Symphonies differ from the first 6?
7-12 had clarinets and expanded percussion like cymbal, bass, drum and others)
1-6: fl, ob, bsn, hn, tpt, timp, strings only
How was the second version of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 different in instrumentation from the first?
he added clarinets and rewrote the oboe parts
Mozart's Symphony No 40- key, year written, and Koechel number
Why was Mozart's Symphony No. 40 important?
- Tonally- it was chromatic and dissonant with materials that anticipate the 19th century (goes through 12 keys)
- minor second is the organizing interval of the whole work
- developed within exposition
- unified movements with 1 or 2 motives
Key and name of Mozart Symphony No. 35?
Key and name of Mozart Symphony No. 36
Key of Mozart Symphony No. 37 and attibution?
Key and name of Mozart Symphony No. 38?
Key and name of Mozart Symphony No.41?
When were Mozart's last 3 symphonies written and what are the keys?
all in 1788 within about 3 months
- 39- EbM
- 41-CM (Jupiter)
4 things that combine to create the classical period
- Rococo with its galant style
- Viennese High Classical Style
- Empfindsamer Stil
- Sturm und Drang
Rococo- dates and description
- style galante- a rejection of polyphonic imitation and overlapping cadences in favor of a quick, elegant, homophonic style
Viennese High Classical (dates and composers)
- mature works of Haydn and Mozart, and early works of Beethoven
Empfindsamer Stil- dates, characteristics and composers
- worked to project "natural feelings" into music, namely within a single movement. This was a change from the Baroque aesthetic that explored one emotion or affect per piece.
- CPE Bach and the North German School
Sturm und Drang
- pushes past "natural feelings" of the empfindsamer stil towards more exaggerated and forced expressiveness.
- adapted from literary movment
- used by Haydn and others
How did balnce and clarity manifest itself in the classical symphony?
- melody and phrase structure became clearly defined
- Harmonic style simplifies as the numerous polyphonic chord changes yield to a clear I-V-I homophonic structure.
- Overlapping phrases replaced with periodic (antecedent-consequence) structures with clear cadential breaks.
- meandering melodies of Baroque replaced with short, distinct motives.
- Counterpoint becomes the method of working out thematic material in the development.
Dates of Pre-classical Symphony
3 Schools of Pre-classical Symphonic development following Sammartini in Italy?
- Mannheim with Stamitz and others
- North German- the Bachs and others
- Vienna- Wagenseil and Monn
3 periods of pre-classical symphony
- 1740's use of French overture and Italian Sinfonia
- 1750's true concert symphonies appear (developmental section, 2nd themes, etc). think Mannheim and Vienna
- 1760's- sinfonia and overture style rplaced by dedicated instrumental work of 4 movments (Vienna/North German).