# BEHAVIORAL

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 Author: cherubicsiren ID: 157174 Filename: BEHAVIORAL Updated: 2012-06-04 18:53:36 Tags: MEDICINE SOCIETY Folders: Description: MEDICINE IN SOCIETY Show Answers:

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1. Know SEN, SPE, PPV and NPV
2. Case-control: compares, measurement?
selected for disease, measured by OR
3. What is the Odds Ratio formula?
4. Cohort: compares, measurement?
selected for risk factor, measured by RR
5. What is the Relative Risk formula?
PPV / c(c+d) = RR
6. Cross Sectional Study: compares, measurement?
Prevalence, particular point in time
7. Clinical Trial: phases
• I - is it safe?
• 2 - does it work?
• 3 - is it better?
• 4 - postmarketing surveillance
8. Formula for Prevalence
total cases / total population at a given time
9. Incidence formula
new cases / total population at risk
10. Attributable risk formula
AR = PPV - c/c+d

Remember AR has PPV first
11. Attributable risk reduction formula
ARR = c/c+d - PPV

Remember that ARR has c/c+d first
12. What is the number needed to treat?
1 / ARR
13. What is the formula to determine confidence interval?
CI = mean +/- Z (SEM)

Z = 1.96 for a 95% interval
14. Precision vs. Accuracy: Describe
Precision - consistent and reproducable - reliable

Accuracy - valid, close to the truth
15. Name the 10 types of bias
• Selection
• Recall
• Sampling
• Late-look
• Procedure
• Confounding
• Pygmalion Effect
• Hawthorne Effect
16. Know the error square
17. Positive skew

mean > median > mode
18. Negative skew

mean< median < mode
19. Study X shows that vitamin C can prevent coronavirus infection but 10 other studies show no benefit. what type of error?
type 1 error (a)
20. Study Y shows that aspirin administration during an MI offers know improvement in patient morbiditiy or mortality. What type of error is present?
Type II B error
21. In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of people fall 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations?
• 1 - 68%
• 2 - 95%
• 3 - 99.5%
22. How do you determine the standard error of the mean?
SEM = standard deviation / square root of number in study
23. Test types: t - test
difference of mean of 2 groups
24. Test types: ANOVA
mean difference between 3 or more groups
25. Test types: x2 (Chi-Square)
difference between proportions or percentages
26. 3 stages of disease prevention
• Primary - prevent
• Secondary - early detection
• Tertiary - reduce disability
27. Kubler Ross stages of grief
• Denial
• Anger
• Bargaining
• Grieving
• Acceptance
28. Name the order of surrogates if patient is disabled without living will
• Spouse
• Parents
• Siblings
• Other Relatives
29. What are the components of the APGAR score?
• Appearance
• Pulse
• Grimace
• Activity
• Respiration
30. Early Developmental Milestones: 0-3months
• Rooting Reflex
• Social Smile
• Responds to voice
31. Early Developmental Milestones: 7-9 months
• Sits alone, crawls, holds toys
• Stranger anxiety
• Responds to name and simple instructions
32. Early Developmental Milestones: 12-15 months
• Walks, Babinski disappears
• Separation anxiety
• Few words
33. Early Developmental Milestones: 12-24 months
• Climbs stairs, stacks blocks (3 @ 1 year, 6@ 2 years)
• Moves away from and back to Mom
• Object permanence, 2 word sentences @ 2 years
34. Early Developmental Milestones: 24-36 months
• Feeds self, kicks ball
• gender identity
• Toilet Training "Pee at age 3"
35. Early Developmental Milestones: 3 years
• Rides tricycle, drawings
• comfortable away from Mom for part of day
• 900 words, complete sentences
36. Early Developmental Milestones: 4 years
• buttons, zippers, grooms, stick figure drawing
• cooperative play, imaginary friends
• detailed stories, preposition use
37. Name Sleep Stages
• Awake = Beta
• Meditation = Alpha
• Stage I = Theta
• Stage II = Sleep Spindles and K complexes
• Stage III = Delta (night terrors)
• REM = Beta (dreaming, increased brain O2 use)

BATS Drink Blood at night
38. Serotonin in the _ nucleus for initiating sleep
Raphe Nucleus
39. Imipramine is used to treat _ because it decreases stage 3 sleep
Enuresis (bed wetting)
40. What is associated with reduced REM? One of these drugs is treatment for night terrors
EtOh, Benzos, Barbs

Benzo for night terrors/sleepwalking
41. In depressed patients there is a _ in REM sleep
Increase
42. Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
Narcolepsy
43. Circadian rhythms are driven by the _ nucleus to control secretion of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin. It causes NE release to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce _.
Suprachiasmatic

Melanin
44. Describe what to do with the following APGAR scores:

>7, 4-6, <4
• >7 = good
• 4-6 = assist
• <4 = resuscitate
45. When does grief become pathological?
If lasting longer than 2 months, accompanied by hallucinations
46. Describe the specs of REM sleep
• 1 ACh initiates
• 2 Increased BP
• 3 PPRF causes extraocular movement
• 4 Penile/Clitoral Tumescence
• 5 Every 90 minutes
47. The suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits secretion of _ and _ which impact the libido.
FSH/LH

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