BEHAVIORAL

 The flashcards below were created by user cherubicsiren on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Know SEN, SPE, PPV and NPV Case-control: compares, measurement? selected for disease, measured by OR What is the Odds Ratio formula? ad/bc Cohort: compares, measurement? selected for risk factor, measured by RR What is the Relative Risk formula? PPV / c(c+d) = RR Cross Sectional Study: compares, measurement? Prevalence, particular point in time Clinical Trial: phases I - is it safe?2 - does it work?3 - is it better?4 - postmarketing surveillance Formula for Prevalence total cases / total population at a given time Incidence formula new cases / total population at risk Attributable risk formula AR = PPV - c/c+d Remember AR has PPV first Attributable risk reduction formula ARR = c/c+d - PPV Remember that ARR has c/c+d first What is the number needed to treat? 1 / ARR What is the formula to determine confidence interval? CI = mean +/- Z (SEM) Z = 1.96 for a 95% interval Precision vs. Accuracy: Describe Precision - consistent and reproducable - reliable Accuracy - valid, close to the truth Name the 10 types of bias SelectionRecallSamplingLate-lookProcedureConfoundingLead-timePygmalion EffectHawthorne Effect Know the error square Positive skew mean > median > mode Negative skew mean< median < mode Study X shows that vitamin C can prevent coronavirus infection but 10 other studies show no benefit. what type of error? type 1 error (a) Study Y shows that aspirin administration during an MI offers know improvement in patient morbiditiy or mortality. What type of error is present? Type II B error In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of people fall 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations? 1 - 68%2 - 95%3 - 99.5% How do you determine the standard error of the mean? SEM = standard deviation / square root of number in study Test types: t - test difference of mean of 2 groups Test types: ANOVA mean difference between 3 or more groups Test types: x2 (Chi-Square) difference between proportions or percentages 3 stages of disease prevention Primary - preventSecondary - early detectionTertiary - reduce disability Kubler Ross stages of grief DenialAngerBargainingGrievingAcceptance Name the order of surrogates if patient is disabled without living will SpouseAdult childrenParentsSiblingsOther Relatives What are the components of the APGAR score? AppearancePulseGrimaceActivity Respiration Early Developmental Milestones: 0-3months Rooting ReflexSocial SmileResponds to voice Early Developmental Milestones: 7-9 months Sits alone, crawls, holds toysStranger anxietyResponds to name and simple instructions Early Developmental Milestones: 12-15 months Walks, Babinski disappearsSeparation anxietyFew words Early Developmental Milestones: 12-24 months Climbs stairs, stacks blocks (3 @ 1 year, 6@ 2 years)Moves away from and back to MomObject permanence, 2 word sentences @ 2 years Early Developmental Milestones: 24-36 months Feeds self, kicks ballgender identityToilet Training "Pee at age 3" Early Developmental Milestones: 3 years Rides tricycle, drawingscomfortable away from Mom for part of day900 words, complete sentences Early Developmental Milestones: 4 years buttons, zippers, grooms, stick figure drawingcooperative play, imaginary friendsdetailed stories, preposition use Name Sleep Stages Awake = BetaMeditation = AlphaStage I = ThetaStage II = Sleep Spindles and K complexesStage III = Delta (night terrors)REM = Beta (dreaming, increased brain O2 use) BATS Drink Blood at night Serotonin in the _ nucleus for initiating sleep Raphe Nucleus Imipramine is used to treat _ because it decreases stage 3 sleep Enuresis (bed wetting) What is associated with reduced REM? One of these drugs is treatment for night terrors EtOh, Benzos, Barbs Benzo for night terrors/sleepwalking In depressed patients there is a _ in REM sleep Increase Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations Narcolepsy Circadian rhythms are driven by the _ nucleus to control secretion of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin. It causes NE release to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce _. Suprachiasmatic Melanin Describe what to do with the following APGAR scores: >7, 4-6, <4 >7 = good4-6 = assist<4 = resuscitate When does grief become pathological? If lasting longer than 2 months, accompanied by hallucinations Describe the specs of REM sleep 1 ACh initiates2 Increased BP3 PPRF causes extraocular movement4 Penile/Clitoral Tumescence5 Every 90 minutes The suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits secretion of _ and _ which impact the libido. FSH/LH Authorcherubicsiren ID157174 Card SetBEHAVIORAL DescriptionMEDICINE IN SOCIETY Updated2012-06-04T22:53:36Z Show Answers