BEHAVIORAL

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Author:
cherubicsiren
ID:
157174
Filename:
BEHAVIORAL
Updated:
2012-06-04 18:53:36
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MEDICINE SOCIETY
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MEDICINE IN SOCIETY
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  1. Know SEN, SPE, PPV and NPV
  2. Case-control: compares, measurement?
    selected for disease, measured by OR
  3. What is the Odds Ratio formula?
    ad/bc
  4. Cohort: compares, measurement?
    selected for risk factor, measured by RR
  5. What is the Relative Risk formula?
    PPV / c(c+d) = RR
  6. Cross Sectional Study: compares, measurement?
    Prevalence, particular point in time
  7. Clinical Trial: phases
    • I - is it safe?
    • 2 - does it work?
    • 3 - is it better?
    • 4 - postmarketing surveillance
  8. Formula for Prevalence
    total cases / total population at a given time
  9. Incidence formula
    new cases / total population at risk
  10. Attributable risk formula
    AR = PPV - c/c+d

    Remember AR has PPV first
  11. Attributable risk reduction formula
    ARR = c/c+d - PPV

    Remember that ARR has c/c+d first
  12. What is the number needed to treat?
    1 / ARR
  13. What is the formula to determine confidence interval?
    CI = mean +/- Z (SEM)

    Z = 1.96 for a 95% interval
  14. Precision vs. Accuracy: Describe
    Precision - consistent and reproducable - reliable

    Accuracy - valid, close to the truth
  15. Name the 10 types of bias
    • Selection
    • Recall
    • Sampling
    • Late-look
    • Procedure
    • Confounding
    • Lead-time
    • Pygmalion Effect
    • Hawthorne Effect
  16. Know the error square
  17. Positive skew

    mean > median > mode
  18. Negative skew

    mean< median < mode
  19. Study X shows that vitamin C can prevent coronavirus infection but 10 other studies show no benefit. what type of error?
    type 1 error (a)
  20. Study Y shows that aspirin administration during an MI offers know improvement in patient morbiditiy or mortality. What type of error is present?
    Type II B error
  21. In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of people fall 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations?
    • 1 - 68%
    • 2 - 95%
    • 3 - 99.5%
  22. How do you determine the standard error of the mean?
    SEM = standard deviation / square root of number in study
  23. Test types: t - test
    difference of mean of 2 groups
  24. Test types: ANOVA
    mean difference between 3 or more groups
  25. Test types: x2 (Chi-Square)
    difference between proportions or percentages
  26. 3 stages of disease prevention
    • Primary - prevent
    • Secondary - early detection
    • Tertiary - reduce disability
  27. Kubler Ross stages of grief
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Bargaining
    • Grieving
    • Acceptance
  28. Name the order of surrogates if patient is disabled without living will
    • Spouse
    • Adult children
    • Parents
    • Siblings
    • Other Relatives
  29. What are the components of the APGAR score?
    • Appearance
    • Pulse
    • Grimace
    • Activity
    • Respiration
  30. Early Developmental Milestones: 0-3months
    • Rooting Reflex
    • Social Smile
    • Responds to voice
  31. Early Developmental Milestones: 7-9 months
    • Sits alone, crawls, holds toys
    • Stranger anxiety
    • Responds to name and simple instructions
  32. Early Developmental Milestones: 12-15 months
    • Walks, Babinski disappears
    • Separation anxiety
    • Few words
  33. Early Developmental Milestones: 12-24 months
    • Climbs stairs, stacks blocks (3 @ 1 year, 6@ 2 years)
    • Moves away from and back to Mom
    • Object permanence, 2 word sentences @ 2 years
  34. Early Developmental Milestones: 24-36 months
    • Feeds self, kicks ball
    • gender identity
    • Toilet Training "Pee at age 3"
  35. Early Developmental Milestones: 3 years
    • Rides tricycle, drawings
    • comfortable away from Mom for part of day
    • 900 words, complete sentences
  36. Early Developmental Milestones: 4 years
    • buttons, zippers, grooms, stick figure drawing
    • cooperative play, imaginary friends
    • detailed stories, preposition use
  37. Name Sleep Stages
    • Awake = Beta
    • Meditation = Alpha
    • Stage I = Theta
    • Stage II = Sleep Spindles and K complexes
    • Stage III = Delta (night terrors)
    • REM = Beta (dreaming, increased brain O2 use)

    BATS Drink Blood at night
  38. Serotonin in the _ nucleus for initiating sleep
    Raphe Nucleus
  39. Imipramine is used to treat _ because it decreases stage 3 sleep
    Enuresis (bed wetting)
  40. What is associated with reduced REM? One of these drugs is treatment for night terrors
    EtOh, Benzos, Barbs

    Benzo for night terrors/sleepwalking
  41. In depressed patients there is a _ in REM sleep
    Increase
  42. Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
    Narcolepsy
  43. Circadian rhythms are driven by the _ nucleus to control secretion of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin. It causes NE release to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce _.
    Suprachiasmatic

    Melanin
  44. Describe what to do with the following APGAR scores:

    >7, 4-6, <4
    • >7 = good
    • 4-6 = assist
    • <4 = resuscitate
  45. When does grief become pathological?
    If lasting longer than 2 months, accompanied by hallucinations
  46. Describe the specs of REM sleep
    • 1 ACh initiates
    • 2 Increased BP
    • 3 PPRF causes extraocular movement
    • 4 Penile/Clitoral Tumescence
    • 5 Every 90 minutes
  47. The suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits secretion of _ and _ which impact the libido.
    FSH/LH

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