Orgo chem Chapter 1

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  1. Coulombe's Law
    • Opposite charges attract.
    • Like Charges repel
  2. Polarity
    • Proton distribution not equal over every atom. The pull of electrons (H20) O has 8 protons, Hydrogen has 1.
    • Oxygen is the more negative side.
  3. Electronegativity
    • The tendancy of an atom to draw electrons toward itself.
    • Left to right
    • down to up
  4. Polarity
    Unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. Due to unequal Coulombic attraction.
  5. Octet rule
    Filled valance shell is more "stable"
  6. Kekule
    molecular structures with dashes.
  7. Do lone pairs have high or low electron density?
    High
  8. What is an Isomer?
    Compound with the same melecular formula but different structure.
  9. Image Upload
    Butane
  10. Image Upload
    Isobutane
  11. What is the difference between trigonal planar and trigonal pyrimidal?
    Pyrimidal has a lone pair.
  12. Image Upload
    • Methanol
    • CH3OH

    1 carbon= Meth
  13. What is the hybridization of a linear bond
    sp
  14. What is the hybridization of a trigonal bond?
    sp2
  15. What hybridization does a tetrahedral have?
    sp3
  16. What hybridization does a double bond have?
    sp2
  17. What hybridization does a triple bond have?
    sp
  18. what are the characteristics of a bronsted/lowry Acid
    Acids are species that donate a proton (H+).
  19. What are the characteristics of a Bronsted/Lowry Base?
    bases are species that accept a proton. (H+)
  20. Describe a Lewis Acid.
    A Lewis acid is therefore any substance, such as the H+ ion, that can accept a pair of nonbonding electrons. In other words, a Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor.

    • (e-) electron pair acceptor
    • e- deficient atoms attach to something more electronegative
  21. Describe a Lewis Base.
    A Lewis base is any substance, such as the OH- ion, that can donate a pair of nonbonding electrons. A Lewis base is therefore an electron-pair donor.
  22. Which of the following statements is true concerning acids and bases?
    • acids and bases don't react with each other
    • acids mixed with bases neutralize each other
    • acids mixed with bases make stronger bases
    • acids mixed with bases make stronger acids
  23. True or false: bases are sometimes called alkalis.
    True
  24. Which is the correct set of acid properties, as described by Boyle:
    • sour taste, corrosive, change litmus from red to blue
    • sour taste, corrosive, change litmus from blue to red
    • sweet taste, slippery, change litmus from blue to red
    • sour taste, slippery, change litmus from blue to red
  25. Neutral solutions have a pH of:
    7
  26. pH of less than 7 is basic; pH of more than 7 is acidic
    False
  27. pH of less than 7 is acidic; pH of more than 7 is basic
    true
  28. Which substance completely dissociates in water?
    • strong acids
    • weak acids
  29. According to the definitions of acids and bases devised by Lewis
    acids are electron pair acceptors and bases are electron pair donors

    acids are electron pair donors and bases are electron pair acceptors
  30. Vinegar, fruit juice, and cola are examples of:
    • strong acids
    • weak acids
    • strong bases
    • weak bases
  31. Do acids or bases react with metals?
    Acids react with metals, releasing hydrogen gas
  32. A strong base will ___________ in a solution?
    Ionize
  33. A strong acid will fully ___________ in a solution.
    dissociate
  34. weak acids and bases set up an _________ where they don't fully dissociate.
    equilibrium
  35. What is the pH range of an acid?
    < 7
  36. What is the pH range of a base?
    > 7
  37. What is Kw?
    The ionization constant for water.
  38. What gas is produced from a metal and an acid reacting?
    Hydrogen
  39. IF a base dissolves in water what is it usually called?
    Alkali
  40. Image Upload
    Acedic Acid
  41. Image Upload
    • Base gives electron
    • acid accepts

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Author:
raybloom
ID:
157201
Filename:
Orgo chem Chapter 1
Updated:
2012-06-04 18:28:15
Tags:
orgo chem
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Description:
Orgo Chemistry Vollhardt, Schore 6th edition
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