Orgo chem Chapter 1

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raybloom
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157201
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Orgo chem Chapter 1
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2012-06-04 14:28:15
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orgo chem
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Orgo Chemistry Vollhardt, Schore 6th edition
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  1. Coulombe's Law
    • Opposite charges attract.
    • Like Charges repel
  2. Polarity
    • Proton distribution not equal over every atom. The pull of electrons (H20) O has 8 protons, Hydrogen has 1.
    • Oxygen is the more negative side.
  3. Electronegativity
    • The tendancy of an atom to draw electrons toward itself.
    • Left to right
    • down to up
  4. Polarity
    Unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. Due to unequal Coulombic attraction.
  5. Octet rule
    Filled valance shell is more "stable"
  6. Kekule
    molecular structures with dashes.
  7. Do lone pairs have high or low electron density?
    High
  8. What is an Isomer?
    Compound with the same melecular formula but different structure.
  9. Butane
  10. Isobutane
  11. What is the difference between trigonal planar and trigonal pyrimidal?
    Pyrimidal has a lone pair.
    • Methanol
    • CH3OH

    1 carbon= Meth
  12. What is the hybridization of a linear bond
    sp
  13. What is the hybridization of a trigonal bond?
    sp2
  14. What hybridization does a tetrahedral have?
    sp3
  15. What hybridization does a double bond have?
    sp2
  16. What hybridization does a triple bond have?
    sp
  17. what are the characteristics of a bronsted/lowry Acid
    Acids are species that donate a proton (H+).
  18. What are the characteristics of a Bronsted/Lowry Base?
    bases are species that accept a proton. (H+)
  19. Describe a Lewis Acid.
    A Lewis acid is therefore any substance, such as the H+ ion, that can accept a pair of nonbonding electrons. In other words, a Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor.

    • (e-) electron pair acceptor
    • e- deficient atoms attach to something more electronegative
  20. Describe a Lewis Base.
    A Lewis base is any substance, such as the OH- ion, that can donate a pair of nonbonding electrons. A Lewis base is therefore an electron-pair donor.
  21. Which of the following statements is true concerning acids and bases?
    • acids and bases don't react with each other
    • acids mixed with bases neutralize each other
    • acids mixed with bases make stronger bases
    • acids mixed with bases make stronger acids
  22. True or false: bases are sometimes called alkalis.
    True
  23. Which is the correct set of acid properties, as described by Boyle:
    • sour taste, corrosive, change litmus from red to blue
    • sour taste, corrosive, change litmus from blue to red
    • sweet taste, slippery, change litmus from blue to red
    • sour taste, slippery, change litmus from blue to red
  24. Neutral solutions have a pH of:
    7
  25. pH of less than 7 is basic; pH of more than 7 is acidic
    False
  26. pH of less than 7 is acidic; pH of more than 7 is basic
    true
  27. Which substance completely dissociates in water?
    • strong acids
    • weak acids
  28. According to the definitions of acids and bases devised by Lewis
    acids are electron pair acceptors and bases are electron pair donors

    acids are electron pair donors and bases are electron pair acceptors
  29. Vinegar, fruit juice, and cola are examples of:
    • strong acids
    • weak acids
    • strong bases
    • weak bases
  30. Do acids or bases react with metals?
    Acids react with metals, releasing hydrogen gas
  31. A strong base will ___________ in a solution?
    Ionize
  32. A strong acid will fully ___________ in a solution.
    dissociate
  33. weak acids and bases set up an _________ where they don't fully dissociate.
    equilibrium
  34. What is the pH range of an acid?
    < 7
  35. What is the pH range of a base?
    > 7
  36. What is Kw?
    The ionization constant for water.
  37. What gas is produced from a metal and an acid reacting?
    Hydrogen
  38. IF a base dissolves in water what is it usually called?
    Alkali
  39. Acedic Acid
    • Base gives electron
    • acid accepts

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