Exam 2

Card Set Information

Author:
jhondras
ID:
157202
Filename:
Exam 2
Updated:
2012-06-06 22:24:52
Tags:
miccrobiology
Folders:

Description:
Chapters 4 & 5
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jhondras on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate
  2. What is ATP?
    chemical form of energy that cells use to do work
  3. Human Cells use ATP for:
    • 1) Muscle contraction (smooth and skeletal)
    • 2) Anabolism
    • 3) Keep body temperature warm
    • 4) Brain
    • 5) Meiosis and Mitosis
    • 6) Active Transport
  4. Bacterial Cells use ATP for:
    • 1) Motility (flagella)
    • 2) Anabolism (binary fission)
    • 3) Active Transport
  5. What does Aerobic Respiration Produce?
    6CO2, 6H20 and 36-38 ATP
  6. What goes into Aerobic Respiration?
    1 glucose and 6O2
  7. Glycolysis
    • Anaerobic
    • Occurs in Cytoplasm
    • Glucose = 2 Pryuvic Acids + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+
  8. Intermediate Phase of Anaerobic Respiration
    2 Pryuvic Acids = 2 Acetyl CoA + 2NADH + 2H+
  9. Catabolism
    Large molecules are broken down into small molecules and energy
  10. Anabolism
    small molecules and energy and turned into large molecules
  11. Metabolism
    Anabolism + Catabolism
  12. Linear Metabolic Pathway
    glycolysis, electron transport chain
  13. Circular Metabolic Pathway
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Calvin Benson Cycle
  14. Enzyme Structure
  15. Holoenzyme
    Both apoenzyme and co-enzyme together
  16. Classes of Enzymes
    • Oxidoreductases
    • Transferase
    • Hydrolase
    • Lyase
    • Isomerase
    • Lygase
  17. Fermentation
    • anaerobic
    • produces 2 ATP
    • same as glycolysis but pryuvic acids become lactic acid (cheese), ethanol and CO2 (beer), propionic acid (swiss cheese) or others
  18. Anaerobic Respiration
    Same as aerobic, but final electron acceptor is inorganic (not oxygen-Nitrate or sulfate)
  19. Cyclic Photophosphorylation
    • more ancient and rare
    • electrons come from cholorphyll and end in chlorophyll
  20. Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation
    • Electrions come from water and go to NADPH
    • most common
  21. Chemoheterotroph
    • energy and carbon come from organic compounds
    • -Aerobic respiration
    • -Fermentation
    • -Anaerobic respiration
    • animals, protozoa, aerobic bacteria, fungi
  22. Chemoautotroph
    • Get Carbon and energy from inorganic CO2
    • -anaerobic respiration in bacteria
  23. Photoheterotroph
    • Gets energy from light and carbon from organic compounds
    • only green and purple non-sulfur bacteria
  24. Photoautotroph
    • Energy from light and carbon from CO2 (inorganic)
    • -Plants, algae, cyanobacteria
  25. Function of Ribosomes
    to make proteins
  26. Size of ribosomes in bacteria
    70S
  27. Size of ribosomes in eukaryotes
    80S
  28. Fimbriae function
    used for attachment
  29. Pili function
    transfers genetic information
  30. Inclusion
    sac that stores something
  31. Plasmid
    contains extrachromosomal DNA
  32. Lysosome
    only in animal cells
  33. Mitochondria function
    creating energy/ATP
  34. cytoskeleton/microtubule function
    supporting cell structure
  35. chromatin
    DNA and histones
  36. Nucleolous function
    • active transription
    • makes mRNA
  37. Rough ER function
    translation...makes new proteins
  38. Smooth ER function
    makes lipids
  39. Golgi Apparatus function
    proteins mature and become active
  40. Flagella function
    movement
  41. Centrisome
    only present in cellular reproduction (mitosis/meiosis)
  42. Plasma Membrane function
    selective permeability
  43. Factors Influencing Enzymatic Activity
    • pH
    • temperature
    • concentration of substrate
    • inhibitors (drugs)
  44. Competitive Inhibition
    drug competes for active site of enzyme
  45. Non-Competitive Inhibition
    Drug binds to allosteric site of enzyme which changes shape of active site, not allowing substrate to bind to it
  46. Feedback Inhibition
    When body has enough of a product it will bind to allosteric site of enzyme, stopping production of product until it is needed agian.
  47. Glycocalyz
    sticky polysaccharide "cell wall" in animal cells
  48. Peroxysome function
    detoxifies free radical oxygen in plant and animal cells
  49. Lysosome function
    Digests enzymes in animal cells
  50. Cocci Morphology
    spherical
  51. coccus
  52. diplococcus
  53. tetrad coccus
  54. Sarcinae Coccus
  55. Staphylococci
  56. Streptococci
  57. Bacillus
    Rod Shaped Morphology
  58. Vibrio
    curved rod
  59. Spirillum
    few turns per unit
  60. spirochete
  61. 4 Types of Flagella
  62. A difference between gram positive and gram negative
    • Gram POSITIVE has HIGH resistance to physical disruption
    • Gram NEGATIVE has LOW resistance to physical disruption
  63. Endospore
    • a resting structure found inside some bacteria
    • only gram positive
    • can survive extreme conditions

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview