Sociology

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John.Rhoades
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15721
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Sociology
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2010-04-22 17:23:17
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Sociology
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Study Guide for Make Up Exam
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  1. refers to the ways of thinking the ways of acting and the material objects that together form a peoples way of life
    Culture
  2. refers to the physical things ranging from computers to houses in a culture. It consists of the concrete tangible element s of culture
    Material culture
  3. includes ideas beliefs values and rules for appropriate behavior. These are the abstract elements within a culture
    Nonmaterial Culture
  4. Rules and expectations by which society guides the behavior of its members
    Norms
  5. norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
    Mores
  6. norms for routine or casual interaction
    Folkways
  7. process by which one generation passes culture to the next
    language culture
  8. Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable good beautiful and serve as broad guidelines for social living
    Values
  9. specific statements that people hold true (ex: because most Americans share the value of equal opportunity they believe that a woman can be president
    Beliefs
  10. argues that a language a person uses determines his or her perception of reality
    Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  11. to personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
    Culture shock
  12. prospective recognizing the cultural diversity of the u.s. and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
    Multiculturalism
  13. a continuing process whereby an individual learns the customs attitudes and values of a social group community or culture
    Socialization
  14. composed of individuals of same age that share the same interests. Most important during adolescence. Positive and negative
    Peer Groups
  15. 18 males are required to sign up for the draft but cant drink
    Cultural Inconsistency
  16. the study of aging and the elderly
    Gerontology
  17. form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth power and prestige
    Gerontocracy
  18. the part of the personality containing biologically inherited urges impulses and drives, is selfish everstriving for gratification and is unconscious and present at birth
    ID
  19. the mediator between the biological drive and the society that would deny them, the ego is conscious and provides a plan to get what the individual wants
    Ego
  20. that part of the personality containing the ideas of what’s right and wrong, controls the id
    Superego
  21. the process by which people act and react in relation to others
    Social Interaction
  22. refers to anything people are conscious of doing because of other people
    Social action
  23. sympathetic understanding
    Verstehen
  24. communicating without speaking
    Nonverbal behavior
  25. based on the person receiving something for his or her effort or interaction such as money gratitude
    Exchange
  26. occurs when people act together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals
    Cooperation
  27. arises when people or groups have incompatible values or when the rewards or resources available to a society are limited, the main way that social interaction occurs
    Conflict
  28. a form of conflict in which individuals or groups confine their conflict within agreed upon rules
    Competition
  29. the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
    Dramaturgical Analysis- Erving Goffman-
  30. v What are the elements of culture
    • Ø Symbols
    • Ø Language
    • Ø Values
    • Ø Norms
  31. v Is culture a learned behavior or is it generic
    Learned
  32. v Which is abstract, material or the non material culture
    • Ø Non material is ideas beliefs values and rules
    • Ø Material is physical things in culture
  33. v Do values underlie beliefs or beliefs underlie values
    Values underlie beliefs
  34. v What are the agents of socialization
    • Ø The people groups and social institutions that provide the critical info needed for children to become fully functioning members of society.
    • Ø They do not exist independently of one another
    • Ø The most important in the U.S.
    • o Family-primary source of socialization for the first years of life
    • o School- the institution that is intended to socialize children in selected skills and knowledge but can also function as a discipline source a food source and a care giver source
    • o Peer groups- composed of individuals of same age that share the same interests. Most important during adolescence. Positive and negative · Mass media- tv radio movies internet. Positive and negative
  35. v What are the five stages of socialization
    • Ø Childhood- grounded in culture
    • Ø Adolescence- buffer stage between childhood and adulthood.
    • § Teen years are dramatic because of cultural inconsistency
    • Ø Adulthood- when most accomplishments occur
    • Ø Old age- 1 in 8 are over 60
  36. Death and dying-stages
    • § Denial
    • § Anger
    • § Negotiation- a person imagines it might be possible to avoid death by striking a deal with god
    • § Resignation- usually accompanied with depression
    • § Acceptance
  37. v What is the nature vs. nurture argument?
    asks the question how much of our behavior is determined by our genetic inheritance and how much is determined by the environment
  38. v What side is sociology on between nature vs. nurture
    nurture
  39. v What was the outcome to pavlov’s experiment
    Ø Smell and tast of food was replaced by socialized response
  40. v What does the concept of self include
    • Ø An awareness of the existence and appearance of ones body
    • Ø Knowledge of ones personal history
    • Ø Knowledge of ones needs
    • Ø The ability to organize ones knowledge and beliefs
    • Ø The ability to step back and look at one’s being as others do
  41. Ø What are the three stages to cooley’s looking glass self theory
    • § We imagine how other people judges these actions
    • § We make some sort of judgement based on the presumed judgement of others
    • § We imagine how our actions appear to others
  42. v Which aspect of self in mead’s theory of self is spontaneous and impulsive
    The "I"
  43. v \Which makes normal social interaction possible
    The “me”
  44. v What are the three parts to freud’s model of personality
    • Ø Ego-the mediator between the biological drive and the society that would deny them, the ego is conscious and provides a plan to get what the individual wants
    • Ø Superego- that part of the personality containing the ideas of what’s right and wrong, controls the id
    • Ø Id- the part of the personality containing biologically inherited urges impulses and drives, is selfish everstriving for gratification and is unconscious and present at birth
  45. Which is concious
    ego
  46. which is the mediator
    superego-controls the id
  47. what are the five types of social interaction
    • Ønonverbal
    • ØExchange
    • Ø Cooperation
    • Ø Conflict
    • Ø competition
  48. v Which sociologist is responsible for the social exchange theory
    Peter Blair
  49. v Which type of interaction occurs when there is a common goal to be achieved
    cooperation
  50. Who is responsible for the looking glass self
    Charles Horton Cooley
  51. Who is responsible for nature vs. nurture
    Ivan Pavlov
  52. Who is responsible for the death and dying stages
    Elizabeth Ross
  53. theory of self "I" and "Me"
    George Herbert Mead
  54. Who broke it down to ego, id, superego
    Sigmond Freud
  55. occurs when people do something for each other with the express purpose of receiving a reward or return. Peter Blau was interested in this type of interaction and is responsible for the Social Exchange Theory. According to Blau, when we see people of equal wealth, beauty, etc, we think nothing of it, but if we see a beautiful woman with a very old man, or a young man with a much older woman, we wonder what the exchange is.
    Exchange Interaction
  56. occurs when people act together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals
    cooperation interaction
  57. arises when people or groups have incompatible values or when the rewards or resources available to a society or its members are limited. ______ is the main way in which social change occurs
    conflict interaction
  58. is a form of conflict in which individuals or groups confine their conflict within agreed upon rules
    competition interaction

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