Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2012-06-06 20:35:50

Chapter 1
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  1. The study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical components, their actions and interactions in the body and their influence on health and disease.
  2. It is possible to have an appetite without being hungry.

    Most people obtain information about nutrition from health professionals.
    False, most go to TV, magazines, then newspaper

    The way people choose to live and eat can affect their health and quality of life as they age

    Vitamins and minerals supply calories.
    False, only protein, carbohydrate, and fat supply calories

    You can order a low fat balanced meal at a fast food outlet.

    Healthful diets cost more than relatively unhealthful diets.
    False, people can save money when they switch from a typical high fat diet to the grain based

    When a person suffers from malnutrition, it means that he or she is taking in too few nutrients.
    False, malnutrition can be caused by either taking in too few nutrients or by consuming excess nutrients

    A nutritionist is a professional who is certified to advise people on nutrition.
    False, a nutritionist is a person who claims to specialize in the study of nutrition, but some are self described experts whose training is questionable A registered dietitian is recognized as a nutrition expert with training

    The notion of eating insects repels people around the world.

    The more current a dietary claim the more you can trust it's accuracy and reliability.
    False, if a nutrition clain is too new it may not have been adequately tested, findings must be confirmed many times over by experiments and evaluated

  3. Conscious deceit practiced for profit, such as the promotion of a false or an unproven product or therapy.
    Health Fraud
  4. Fraud. A person who practices health fraud.
    • Quackery
    • (quack = to boast loudly)
  5. 6 Classes of Nutrients:
    1) Carbohydrates

    2) Fat

    3) Protein

    4) Vitamins

    5) Minerals

    6) Water
  6. Substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth maintenance and repair.
  7. A nutrient that MUST be obtained from food because the body CANNOT make it for itself.
    Essential nutrient
  8. A nutrient that can be obtained from other places because the body makes it.
    Nonessential nutrient
  9. Energy yielding nutrients (3):
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Proteins
  10. These do NOT yield energy once broken down in the body, but do perform other tasks such as maintenance and repair:
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  11. The capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something.
  12. The unit used to measure energy.
  13. Carbohydrates contain __ calories per gram.
  14. Proteins contain __ calories per gram.
  15. Fats contain __ calories per gram.
  16. Alcohol contains __ calories per gram.
  17. The body uses energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to do work or generate heat.
  18. Organic, or carbon containing essential nutrients that are vital to life but needed only in relatively minute amounts.
  19. Inorganic compounds, some of which are essential nutrients.
  20. Vitamins and minerals do not supply energy, or calories, instead they regulate the release of energy and other aspects of METABOLISM.
  21. Collective term for all of the chemical and physical reactions occurring in living cells, including the reactions by which the body obtains and uses energy from foods.
  22. Water soluble vitamins:
    B & C
  23. Fat soluble vitamins:
    A, D, E & K
  24. Provides the medium for life processes.
  25. Water carries materials to and from cells and provides the warm nutrient rich bath in which cells thrive.
    When energy yielding nutrients release energy, they break down into water and other simple compounds, without water you could live only a few days.
  26. How to calculate the caloric value:
    If you now the number of grams of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in a food you can calculate the number of calories in it.

    • Simply multiply the carb grams by 4
    • multiply fat grams by 9
    • multiply protein grams by 4

    Add the total together to obtain the number of calories.
  27. How to calculate the percentage:
    The percentage of your total energy intake from carbohydrate, fat and protein can then be determined by dividing the number of calories from each energy nutrient by the total calories and then multiplying your answer by 100 to get the percentage.
  28. Ex:

    45 grams of carb x 4 calories =180 calories
    39 grams of fat x 9 calories = 351 calories
    27 grams of protein x 4 calories = 108 calories

    TOTAL 639 calories
    calories from carb =45 x 4 cal/gram/639 = 0.281 x 100 = 28%

    calories from fat = 39 x 9 cal/gram/639 = 0.548 x 100 = 55%

    calories from protein = 27 x 4 cal/gram/639 = 0.168 x 100 = 17%
  29. 5 Leading Causes of Death that have been linked to diet:
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
  30. 3 deaths associated with excessive alcohol consumption:
    • Accidents
    • Suicide
    • Liver Disease
  31. Any condition caused by an excess, deficiency or imbalance of calories or nutrients.
  32. Calorie or nutrient over consumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease a form of malnutrition.
  33. Deficiency diseases in American have been virtually eliminated due to the abundance of food and practice of fortifying food with essential nutrients (adding iodine to salt for example)
  34. A chronic disease characterized by deterioration of body organs as a result of misuse and neglect. Poor eating habits, smoking, lack of exercise and other lifestyle habits often contribute to some diseases.
    Degenerative disease
  35. Degenerative diseases:
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Osteoporosis
    • Diabetes
  36. Not all diseases are equally influenced by diet. Some may be inherited.

    Nutrition Unresponsive (Genetic) Diseases:
    • Sickle cell Anemia
    • Hemophilia
    • Adult bone loss (osteoporosis)
    • Cancer
    • Arthritis
  37. A number of environmental, behavioral, social and genetic factors work together to determine a person's likelihood of suffering from a degenerative disease.
  38. Positive Lifestyle Elements:
    • Avoid excess alcohol
    • No smoking
    • Maintain a healthy weight
    • Exercise regularly
    • Sleep 7-8 hours a day
    • Eat breakfast
    • Eat nutritious regular meals
  39. The key to disease prevention and optimal health is not eating or avoiding a certain food, but rather in creating a lifestyle that includes time for preparing nutritious meals and enjoying regular physical activity.
  40. Scurvy is a vitamin __ deficiency:

    They were also called LIMIES because they ate limes to get their vitamin C.
  41. Behaviors that reflect personal choices, habits, and customs that are influenced and modified by social forces are called
    Lifestyle behaviors
  42. Health promotion focuses on changing human behavior, getting people to eat healthful diets, be active, get regular rest, ..... etc
  43. Healthy People 2010 has two broad goals:
    increasing the quality and years of healthy life and by eliminating health discrepancies
  44. The physiological need for food.
  45. The psychological desire to eat, which is often but not always accompanied by hunger.
  46. Our diets are limited by the types and amounts of food available through the food supply, which, in turn, is influenced by many forces.
    History have shown that when it comes to health an abundant food supply can be a double edged sword.

    Access to many types of foods allows people to choose high fat diets that are rich in meats and other fatty foods, which can contribute to increased rates of heart disease and other problems.

    That's one of the reasons why degenerative diseases are sometimes referred to as DISEASE OF AFFLUENCE.
  47. Severe under consumption of calories or nutrients leading to disease or increased susceptibility to disease, a form of malnutrition.
    Under nutrition
  48. Extremely low income can make it difficult for people to buy enough food to meet their minimum nutritional needs putting them at risk for under nutrition.
  49. Numerous factors influence your food choices including these:
    • Hunger, appetite and food habits
    • Nutrition knowledge health beliefs, concerns and practices
    • Availability, convenience, and economy
    • Advertising and the media
    • Early experiences, social interactions and cultural traditions
    • Personal preference, taste, and psychological needs
    • Values, such as political views, environmental concerns and religious beliefs
  50. Perceived barriers to healthful eating:
    • Healthful foods are not always available from fast food and take out restaurants
    • It costs more to eat healthy foods
    • I'm too busy to take the time to eat healthy
    • I hear too much conflicting information about which foods are good for me and which foods are not
    • Healthy foods don't taste as good
    • The people I usually eat with do not eat healthy foods
  51. Smart shopping tips:
    • Buy local foods and fresh foods in season, use the local newspaper to find the best seasonal buys and special sale items
    • Shop from a list to help and avoid buying unnecessary items
    • Read the ingredients list and Nutrition facts label on packaged foods, compare amounts of fat, sodium, calories and nutrients
    • Use "sell by" and best if used by" dates to ensure quality and freshness
    • Shop the perimeter of the grocery store to find many fresh whole foods, fresh produce, low fat dairy products, lean meats, poultry and fish, whole grain breaks
  52. A group of people such as family, who depend on one another and share a set or norms, beliefs, values and behaviors.
    Social group
  53. Knowledge, beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art, and literature acquired by members of a society and passed along to succeeding generations.
  54. The traditional foods eaten by the people of a particular culture.
    Ethnic cuisine
  55. Defined as a society's ability to shape its economic and social systems to maintain both natural resources and human life, and it involved building locally based, self reliant food systems.
  56. When consumers purchase foods that have been produced locally, a greater proportion of the profits remains with local farmers, providing them with livable income while supporting local economies.
    Additionally the purchase of locally produced foods protects the environment by reducing the use of fossil fuel (for transporting food) and packaging materials.
  57. Many are lacto-ovovegetarians, some eat fish, and most eat no beef or poultry, fast at certain times of the month and avoid eating solid food after the noon hour.
  58. Beef is NEVER consumed and pork is avoided.
  59. Kosher, many rules how mammals must be slaughtered or how foods must be prepared and when they may be consumed.
  60. Alcoholic beverages and coffee, tea, and other beverages containing caffeine are avoided.
  61. Overeating is discouraged, no alcohol.
  62. Meat is not consumed on Fridays during Lent.
    Roman Catholic
  63. Most are lacto-ovovegetarians, if meat is consumed pork is avoided, tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages are not allowed water is not consumed with meals, but is drunk before and after meals.
    Seventh Day Adventist
  64. Energy yielding nutrients include all of the following except:

  65. Nutrition information can come from a variety of sources, where does the average American obtain the majority of his or her information?

  66. What is the leading cause of death in the United States?

    Heart disease
    Liver disease
    Heart disease
  67. What is the calorie value of a meal that supplies 110 g of carbs, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat and 5 g alcohol?
  68. One of the two broad goals of the Healthy People 2010 initiative includes:
    Eliminating health discrepancies
  69. Because claims made in advertisements about the benefits of nutrition products are required by law to be true, they can be believed
  70. Which of the following is a professional in the field of nutrition and has been trained in sound evidence based nutrition?

    Registered Dietitian, RD
    Board Cert Nutritionist BCN
    Fellow of the Academy of Nutrition FAN
    World Weight Federation WWF
    Registered Dietician RD
  71. Eating a fast food meal is really not consistent with a healthy lifestyle:
  72. By chemical analysis what nutrient is present in highest amounts in most foods?

  73. The term essential describes a nutrient that the body:
    Cannot make for itself in sufficient quantity and must obtain from food
  74. How can you tell if a nutrition news story is noteworthy and a source of credible nutrition information?
    • Study described should be published in a journal that uses experts in the field to review research results called PEER REVIEW
    • Be sure report is about recent research
    • Are the reported results from an epidemiological study (examine populations to determine food patterns and health status over time) or intervention study(examine the effects of a specific treatment or intervention on a particular group of subjects and compare the results to those of a similar group of people not receiving the treatment)
  75. A group of individuals with characteristics that match those of the group being treated in an intervention study but who receive a sham treatment or no treatment at all.
    Control group
  76. The participants in a study who receive the real treatment or intervention under investigation.
    Experimental group
  77. Why doesn't the government do something to prevent the media from delivering misleading nutrition information?
    • The First Amendment guarantees freedom of the press, people may express whatever views they like in the media whether sound unsound or even dangerous.
    • By law writers cannot be punished for publishing misinformation unless it can be proved in court that the information has caused a reader bodily harm (in addition to several other things)
  78. Is the internet a reliable source of nutrition and health information?
    • One method for determining whether information found on the internet is reliable and of good quality is the CARS checklist.
    • Credibility - check credentials of the author
    • Accuracy - check to ensure that the info is current, factual and comprehensive
    • Reasonableness - evaluate the info for fairness, balance, and consistency
    • Support - check to see whether supporting documentation is cited for scientific statements