Pathology

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Author:
khuber
ID:
157249
Filename:
Pathology
Updated:
2012-06-12 01:38:26
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pathology parasitology
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terms for the first test
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  1. Prepatent Period
    the time elapsed between the inital infesction with the parasite until the infection can be detected using common diagnostic proceedures.
  2. Endoparasites
    parisites which live internally in their host
  3. Ectoparasites
    parasites which live externally on their host
  4. Protozoa
    (unicellular organisms) intestinal &/or blood parasites
  5. Trematodes
    (flukes) - flat worms with unsegmented, leaf-shaped bodies often inhabiting the GI, reperatory, or urinary tracts of animals. Fluke eggs often have a cap or lid called an operculum. The larval stage of flukes is called the miracidium, which inhabits interemediate hosts.
  6. Cestodes
    (tapeworms) - flat worms, ribbon like & divided into long changes of segments (proglottids), which are attached to the head or anterior end (scolex). Proglottids can be seen with the naked eye - look like rice grains.
  7. Nematodes
    (roundworms) - Most important group of parasites in vet med. Found in all different tissues depending on species & stages of life cycle.
  8. Acanthocephalans
    (Thorny-headed worms) - less common, has complex life cycles & spiny 'noses'.
  9. Name the 4 classifications of interal parasites:
    • - nematodes
    • - cestodes
    • - trematodes
    • - protozoa
  10. Host
    the animal that is infected
  11. Definitive Host
    the host that harbors the adult, mature or sexual stages of a a parasite
  12. Life Cycle
    the entire 'life' of a parasite from egg to larva to adult (reproductive stage)
  13. Diagnostic stage
    the stage or form that is usually transmitted to the host & detected via diagnostic test.
  14. Helminth
    worm-like animal, both free-living & parasitic species
  15. Parthenogenetic
    female that can lay eggs w/o copulation
  16. How do you preform a fecal float?
    • 1. Collect sample
    • 2. Get a fecalizer, remove green filtration basket
    • 3. Use the filtration basket as a cookie cutter in the feces
    • 4. Place the green filtration basket into the outer covering but do not push it donw.
    • 5. Put a little of the fecal float solution in the top of the basket and twist clockwise and counter clockwise. Do not pump the basket! It might splash out on you.
    • 6. Push the filtration basket completely into the outer covering.
    • 7. Fill the test the rest of the way up with the solution. The solution should create a bubble on top.
    • 8. Place slide cover on the top of the bubble and wait 10 min.
    • 9. After 10 min remove slide cover and place on side.
    • 10. Slide is ready to be examined.
  17. How do you make a wet mount smear?
    • Place cotton applicator in fecal material and get some on the tip
    • Roll the tip on a clean slide. Smear an extreamly thin layer of fecal material on the slide. You should be able to see through the layer.
    • Drop one drop of saline solution with the use of a surrenge on the slide.
    • Place a slide cover over the drop of saline solution.
    • View slide under microscope.
  18. How do you make a stained smear?
    • Place cotton applicator in fecal material
    • Roll applicator over clean slide
    • Dip in each staining solution 10 times.
    • Rinse under a trickle of water to remove excess stain
    • Wait for slide to dry
    • View under microscope.
  19. What are the fecal float solutions?
    • Sodium nitrate
    • zinc sulfate
    • sugar solution (sheather's solution)
    • sodium chloride
  20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Sodium Nitrate fecal floation solution?
    • Most common fecal flotation solution
    • Floats eggs, oocyst & larvae

    • expensive compared to others
    • can crush giardia
    • forms crystals & distorts eggs if allowed to sit more than 20 min
  21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Zinc Sulfate float solution?
    • considered the best choice
    • floats protozoa w/ least amount of distorion

    more common in diagostic labs, extreamly expensive
  22. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Sugar solution aka Sheather's solution?
    • inexpensive
    • long shelf life
    • does not crystalize or distort eggs
    • best choice for cryptosporidia

    extreamly sticky and hard to work with
  23. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sodium chloride?
    • least desireable
    • corrodes lab equipment
    • distorts eggs
    • forms crystals
    • poor floation, heavy eggs stay submurged
  24. What are the common types of centerfuges? What are their advantages & disavantages?
    Horizontal centerfiuge - has swing arms, can remix when the swing arms are lowered


    angled centerfuge head - keeps tubes angled, sometimes does not have a timer,
  25. What does a refractometer measure?
    fluid specific gravity and total protein concentration
  26. What are some ways to collect samples?
    • free catch (off the ground, out of cat box)
    • fecal loop
    • glove
  27. How to distinguis between free-living nematodes and parasitic larvae
    free-living neamtodes are larger, contain more complex interal systems, females will have eggs in uteri,
  28. Gross Examination of Feces
    • consistency
    • color
    • blood
    • mucus
    • rocks or sticks
    • parasites
    • unusual odor
  29. What is the preferred test for occult fecal blood?
    Guaiac - less affected by raw meat diets
  30. What should be on a sample?
    • Owner's name
    • pet's name
    • how the specimen was obtained
    • time
    • date
  31. What is the life cycle of a tapeworm?
    Host releases progottids/eggs in feces. Larval flea ingests eggs. Larval flea develops into an adult flea. Dog/cat ingests flea and is infected with tapeworm.
  32. What is the life cycle of a flea?
    Flea lays eggs which fall off host. Eggs become larva. Larva become pupa. Pupa become adults which infest host.
  33. What are the scentific names for fleas?
    Siphonaptera

    Ctenocephalides
  34. How do you collect ectoparasites?
    • Skin Scraping
    • cellophane Tape
  35. Giardia
    • Protozoa, fagellated
    • 2 stages (motile stage (trophozoite) & cyst stage)
    • prepatent period = diarrea within 5 days, cyst appear in 1 week
  36. Trichomonads
    long, slinder w/ single flagellum (comb over) attached torsoal surface forming a sail-like structure that ripples as the organism moves thorugh fecal debris
  37. What organism glides?
    Trichomonads
  38. Which organism has a jerky motion?
    Giardia
  39. What are trophozoites?
    one-celled motile organisums
  40. What are the trichostrongyle-type eggs?
    • Bunostomum
    • Cooperia
    • Chabertia
    • Haemonchus
    • Oesophagostomum
    • Ostertagia
    • Trichostrongylus
  41. Large Strongyles
    • Strongylus vulgaris
    • nematode
    • bloodworm

    most harmful of interal parasites

    • found in cecum & large colon
    • larve found in abdominal tissue & organs

    prepatent period = 6 months to 1 year

    can cause ulcers on intestinal mucosa, severe tissue damage, thrombosis, embolisums
  42. Small Strongyles
    • Nematode
    • found in large colon and cecum
    • Prepatent period - 6 months to 1 year
  43. Parascaris equorum
    • Large roundworm
    • ascarids
    • flatulence, diarrhea, rough hair coat, pot belly
    • common in young horses, coughing/nasal discharge
    • larval migration contributes to respitory infections
    • prepatent period - 75 days to 3 months

    can cause colic if a huge infestation dies at once because of blockage
  44. Oxyuris equi
    • Equine Pinworm
    • tail rubbing/anal irritation
    • can find adults on rectal sleeve & anus
    • scotch tape test

    prepatent period - 4 to 5 months
  45. Enterobius vermicularis
    human pinworm
  46. Strongyloides
    • intestinal threadworm
    • found in small intestine
    • female is parasitic
    • prepatent period - 5 to 7 days (often see diarrhea around the same time as 'foal heat')
  47. Eimeria
    • Protozoa
    • Coccidia
    • main coccidia of cattle (15 species)
  48. Cryptosporidium
    • Protozoa
    • Coccidia
    • small intestines
    • zoonatic
  49. Trichomonas
    • 3 flagella
    • found in reporoductive tract
    • cow STD
  50. Fasciola hepatica
    • cattle/sheep/goats
    • trematode
    • found in bile duct of liver
    • prepatent period - 56 days
  51. Moniezia
    • ungulate tapeworms
    • prepatent period - 40 days
    • produce square or triangular shapped eggs
  52. Bunostomum trigonocephalum
    • Sheep/goats
    • nematode
    • hookworm of SI
  53. Trichuris ovis
    • sheep/goats
    • nematode
    • whipworm
    • cecum & upper colon
    • prepatient period - 3 months
  54. Ascaris suum
    • Found in pigs
    • Nematode
    • large intestinal roundworm
    • highly zoonotic
    • larvae migrate in liver and lungs causing damage & money
  55. Taenia (pigs)
    • intermediate host (man is defentive host)
    • found in muscles
  56. Trichuris suis
    • pigs
    • nematodes
    • whipworms
    • cecum&colon
    • prepatent period - 24 to 49 days
  57. Macracanthorhynchus hyrdinaceus
    • thorny headed worms/acanthocephalan worm
    • prepatent period - 60 to 90 days
    • small intestine
  58. Spirocerca lupi
    • Nematode/roundworm
    • infects esogphageal walls
    • paperclip shaped eggs
    • Host injuests infected beetle or other animal which is encysted
  59. Physaloptera
    • nematode/roundworm
    • stomach worm
    • prepatent period = 56 to 83 days
  60. Strongyloides
    • nematode
    • intestinal threadworm
    • prepatent period - 8 to 14 days

    • routes of infection:
    • penetrates skin
    • hoste ingests infective larva
  61. Toxocara
    • nematode
    • adults look like coiled bed spring
    • prepatent period - 21 to 35 days
    • can cause visceral larval migrans
    • DOES NOT migrate through the body
  62. Ancylostoma caninum
    • nematode
    • hookworm
    • small intestines
    • prepatent period- 15 to 26 days, 10 to 12 days in newborn pups
    • can cause cutaneous larval migrans
  63. Trichuris vulpis
    • nematode
    • dog whipworm
    • cecum & colon
    • football shapped eggs w/ polar plugs and symmetrical
    • prepatent period - 70 to 90 days
  64. Aelurostrongulus abstrusus
    • nematode
    • feline lungworm
  65. Capillaria
    • nematode
    • urinary bladder worm
    • nonsymetrical football eggs
  66. Dipylidium caninum
    • cestode (tapeworm)
    • most common
    • cucumber seeds
    • host ingest infected flea
    • prepatent period - 14 to 21 days
    • proglottids hold seed packets
  67. Taenia
    • cestode (tapeworm)
    • single eggs
    • proglottids
    • route of infection: Ingestion of intermediate host
  68. Echinococcus grandulosus
    • cestode (tapeworm)
    • 3 parts
    • zoonotic potental
    • route of infection: ingestion of intermediate host (sheep)
  69. Nanophyetus salmincola
    • trematode (fluke)
    • salmon poisoning
    • route of infection: dog eats infected fish
  70. Paragonimus kellicotti
    • trematode (fluke)
    • lung fluke
    • prepatent period = 30 to 60 days
    • route of infection: animal eats infected crayfish
  71. Isosporia
    • Protozoa
    • coccidian
    • small intestine
    • prepatient period = 7 to 14 days
  72. Toxoplasma gondii
    • protozoa
    • coccidan
    • mostly in cats (catboxes)
    • zoonotic, especially for pregnate women who exhibit little or no titer

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