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What is the sequence of the process children follow when learning language?
- 1. Vocalizing sounds to obtain a response
- 2. Recognizing a stimulus-producing sound (barking = dog)
- 3. Generalizing a word to identify an object
- 4. Speaking by age 3 in phrases and sentences containing approximately 4 words, understanding "yes" and "no", asking and answering simple questions, and following simple directions
- 5. Developing language skills - 4-5 words in a sentence, using limited grammar rules, creating and telling personal stories, asking and answering questions, describing objects and personal events
- 6. Acquiring a speaking vocab of 2,000-3,000 words by kindergarten
- 7. Developing a continuous ability to produce words that includes the use of social talk, correct grammar and construction of orals and written complex sentences
What is the language experience approach (LEA)?
An instructional method that incorporates their various components of language arts by using children's experiences and backgrounds as a structure for developing stories
using sounds, syntax and vocabulary of two languages simultaneously as a child participates in literacy activities
Unlocking the meaning of a word
the way a word is spelled
the way a word is pronounced
sounds heard in a word
the way a word is defined
A strategy that includes 3 cueing systems: 1) graphophonic, 2) syntactic, 3) semantics
the ability to use letter-sound knowledge to identify an unknown word
the ability to recognize that spoken words are made up of a sequence of individual sounds that contributes to the young reader's ability to recognize and pronounce unknown words
Young readers should be able to perform the following phonemic awareness tasks that realte to learning to read and to spell:
- 1. Rhyming and alliteration
- 2. Blending
- 3. segmenting beginning and ending sounds in words
- 4. Phoneme substitution
a written approximation based on how a child determines the spelling of a word
An instructional structure for developing phonemic awareness:
- 1. Promote language through different types of oral delivery
- 2. Create games and activiites that develop an awareness of sounds in words.
- 3. Design writing activities
there is a one-to-one correspondence between alphabet letters and sounds
the understanding the written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
a series of abstract marks that are assigned identities and sounds for use in written contexts
Instructional sequence for teaching alphabetic principle:
- 1. Teach letter names in random sequence
- 2. Teach the formation and sounds of letters in random sequence
- 3. Teach lessons that highlight one letter at a time
- 4. Teach the likenesses and differences in letters based on formation and sound
- 5. Reteach difficult letters
- 6. Provide skill lessons for students experienceing difficulty in learning letters
the reading and writing experiences that a child encounters before formal literacy instruction begins
support for a learner as he or she enters a phase of readiness for a new skill
7 Literary Elements
- point of view
- mood or emotional tone
designed to provide a sequence of skills that are introduced, practiced and applied
Sequence for teaching young children to read using word analysis skills:
- 1. Introduce consonants and short vowels in combination.
- 2. Introduce single consonanats before introducing consonant blends or clusters.
- 3. Introduce consonants that have high utility first. /t/ has a higher utility than /z/ - used in more words
- 4. Begin to introduce more complex letter combinations, such as consonant blends and diagraphs
a structural element added to the beginning or ending of a root or base word in order to alter the meaning, pronunciation or function.
the idea that individual letters represent individual speech sounds
consonant blend or cluster
2 or 3 letters in the same syllable that are blended or heard when pronounced (tr in tree)
combination or 2 or more letters that represent a sound that is different from the speech sound that the letters represent individually (ch in chop, sh in shop)
associating printed letters with the speech sounds the letters make to comprehend a word
two adjacent vowels in which each vowel is heard in the pronunciation (ou in house, oi in oil)
explicit phonics instruction
providing children with direct phonics instruction that allows them to use decodable text sources that are made up of words and sounds that have been previously taught
a written or printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme)
the relationship between printed letters and the sounds they represent
the first stage children experience when learning about words. Words are learned as whole units that are sometimes embedded in a logo, such as a stop sign or the arches in the McDonald's sign
the smallest meaningful unit of language
onsets and rimes
- onsets are the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words (bl in blend)
- rimes are vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable (end in blend)
the smallest unit of sound in a language the distinguishes one word from another word
the knowledge or understanding that speech consists of a series of sounds and that individual words can be divided into phonemes
the process of applying knowledge or understanding that speech consists or a series of sounds and that individual words can b divided into phonemes
two adjacent vowels that represent one speech sound
relates to a student's being able to (1) orally read a text source by using accuracy in pronouncing words, (2) comprehend effectively because attention is given to textual meaning, (3) provide expression that includes attention to punctuation, and (4) read with a rate that is appropriate for the purpose indentified for reading the text source.
Most common reading difficulties that influence reading fluency
- 1. word-by-word reading
- 2. insufficient knowledge of word recognition skills
- 3. ineffective comprehension
- readers respond correctly to questions and statements from stated text
- identifying main idea and recalling details
readers use ideas and information that are stated directly in the text along with their intuition, background and experiences to reach a conclusion or a hypothesis.
requires children to compare information and ideas presented in the text with their own experiences, backgrounds, and values.
Stages of Spelling Development
Prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing
often centers on norm-referenced standardized tests
nonstandarized measure that could be an observation, a checklist, a teacher-generated test, an interest inventory, an interview, a research project, a portfolio and informal reading inventory, a reading miscue inventory, or another type of measure that gives a teacher insight into student performance.
identify the number of correct words a student pronounces in lines of print
a collection of student-generated products over a period of time
Reading levels of an informal reading inventory
- independent word recognition - 95% - 100% correct -- comprehension level 90% - 100% correct
- instructional word recognition - 90% - 94% correct -- comprehension level 70% - 89% correct
- frustration word recognition - less than 90% correct -- comprehension level Less than 70% correct