4131 Week 4

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  1. Objectives
    • 1. Describe key concepts associated with organizational structure
    • 2. Identify the nature and purpose of bureaucracy
    • 3. Describe key aspects of organizational structure and the importance of understanding the reporting relationships in an organization
  2. Organizational Theory (Marquis & Huston, 2009)
    • -defines formation of group or entity
    • -articulates lines of communication
    • -delineates (outlines) lines of authority
    • -outlines who has decision-making jurisdiction (a legal theory [based on rationality])
  3. Formal vs. Informal Structure
    • Formal:
    • -planned
    • -visible
    • -framework for authority
    • -responsibility/accountability

    • Informal:
    • -work-social
  4. Terms to Understand
    -Chain of command
    -Line and staff positions
    -span of control
    • Chain of command
    • -those having greatest decision-making authority are located at top; those with the least are at the bottom

    • Line & Staff Positions
    • -equal/flat

    • Span of Control
    • -number of people directly reporting to any one manager represents that manager's span of control and determines number of interactions expected of him or her

    • Centrality
    • -refers to location of a position on an organization chart where frequent and various types of communication occur
    • -ie. middle level managers communicate with lower levels of hierarchy and top-level managers
  5. Terms to understan
    -Top level managers
    -Middle level managers
    -First level managers
    • Top level managers
    • -ie. chief operating officer (COO) or CEO, chief nurse
    • -looks @the organization as a whole, coordinating internal and external influences, and generally make decisions with few guidelines or structures

    • Middle-level managers
    • -ie. unit supervisor or manager (lots of centrality)
    • -coordinate efforts of lower levels of the hierarchy and are the conduit (passageway) between lower and top-level managers
    • -carries out day-to-day operations but are still involved in some long-term planning and making unit policies

    • First-level managers
    • -ie. primary care nurses, team leaders, case managers, and charge nurses
    • -concerned with their specific unit's workflow. Deal with immediate problems in unit's daily operations...etc
  6. Types of Organizational Structures
    -bureaucratic: line, staff, line-staff
    -ad hoc
    -flat designs
  7. 1. Elements of "Bureaucracy"
    • Definition
    • -Commonly called line structures/line organizations
    • -Found frequently in large health care facilities and usually resemble Weber's original design for effective organizations

    • Advantages
    • -fast decision making

    • Disadvantages
    • -produce monotony
    • -alienate workers
    • -make adjusting rapidly to altered circumstances difficult
    • -restriction to upward communication

    • Delineates/defines:
    • -hieracrchy
    • -division of labor

    • Provides rules (ie. policies)
    • -system of procedures
    • -ensures competency

    • Defines relationships
    • -"legitimate authority"
  8. 2. Ad hoc
    • -modification of bureaucratic structure and is sometimes used on a temporary basis to facilitate completion of a project within a formal line of organization
    • -serves as a way for professionals to handle large amts of available information

    • Disadvantages
    • -decreased strength in formal chain of command and decreased employee loyalty to parent organization
  9. 3. Matrix Structure
    • Definition
    • -designed to focus on both product and funciton
    • -has normal vertical and horizontal chain of command

    • Advantages
    • -best pt outcome
    • -good staff education ie. oncology units
    • -communication good

    • Disadvantages
    • -decision making slow bc of necessity of information sharing = produce confusion and frustration for workers bc of its dual-authority hierarchical design
  10. 4. Flat designs
    • Definition
    • -an effort to remove hierarchical layers by flattening the chain of command and decentrealizing the organiziotn
    • -there's a line of authority, but more authority and decision making can occur where the work is being carried out

    • Advantages
    • -decision making faster
    • -reduce cost
    • -good pt outcome
    • -education specialized

    • Disadvantages
    • -main dude has too much power: risk for favoritism
    • -staff has to do increased manegerial work
  11. Effective Organizational Structure?
    • clear design
    • utilizes few managers
    • sound communication
    • decision made @lower levels
    • informal groups encouraged
    • future leader developed
  12. Shared Governance
    • Definition
    • organizational structure
    • potentially bridges differences of traditional bureaucratic models
    • integrates core values and beliefs of professional practice

    • This is done through
    • -equal interdisciplinary decision-making
    • -leads to increased job satisfaction and sense of belonging/commitment
    • -no organization chart

    • Characteristics
    • -in nursing 'councils' are utilized
    • -autonomy and independence
    • -accountability
    • -empowerment
    • -participation
    • -collaboration

    • +
    • improves pt outcome
    • good education
    • increased productivity
    • improved work environment

    • -
    • slow decision making
  13. Organization Culture

    Organization Climate
    • Organization Culture Definition
    • -system of symbols and interactions unique to each organization
    • -ways of thinknig, behaving, and believing that members of a unit have in common
    • **total of organization's: beliefs, hx, taboos, formal and informal relationships, communication patters

    • Organization Climate Definition
    • -how employees perceive an organization
    • -ie. fair friendly, and informal or as formal and very structured
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4131 Week 4
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