1 MANAGEMENT Practice & Theory

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oneill_ie
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1 MANAGEMENT Practice & Theory
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2012-06-05 16:30:05
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Management
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Management revision 1
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  1. CLASSICAL
    Inputs than outputs

    Efficiency rather than effectiveness

    • WEBER 6420 – Bureaucratic- Rules & proceedures
    • TAYLOR 5615 – Scientific- Taylorism - efficiency of production process
    • Fayol 4125 – Admin - flow of info, emphasises structural nature of organisations
  2. 5 functions of a manager
    • Plan
    • organise
    • command
    • co-ordinate
    • control
  3. Activities in an org
    • interdependent & must work smoothly together§ Technical
    • Commercial
    • Financial
    • Security
    • Accounting
    • Managerial (Plan, organise etc)
  4. Scientific & Behavioural approaches
    • TAYLORISM
    • develop science per workflow
    • scientific selection & training
    • Coop management / workers
    • work division
  5. Contingency Approach
    • Planning
    • organising
    • leading
    • controlling
    • tailored to circumstances faced by organisation
    • The “right thing to do” – depends on a complex variety of critical environmental & internal contingencies
  6. Burns & Stalker
    Mechanistic e.g. textiles (stable , static environments) Organic e.g. software (changing , dynamic environments)
  7. Lawrence & Lorsch
    • the greater the internal difference, the greater the need for co-ordination between units.
    • The more differentiated the organisation the more difficult it is to resolve the conflict
  8. Human Relations/ Social Psychology Theories
    • Elton Mayo
    • Hawthorne studies
    • importance of groups in individuals behaviour at work. Must be seen as members of a group.
    • Unofficial groups have strong influence on worker behaviour.
    • Managers must be aware & cater for groups to ensure collaboration.
  9. Human Relations/ Social Psychology Theories
    • Maslow
    • Hierarchy of human needs
    • lower more powerful
    • Pyramid
    • 5. Psychological needs (Food, water, air, sleep)
    • 4. Safety & security (structure, order, security, predictability)
    • 3. Love & belonging ( friends, companions, family, personal relationships)
    • 2. Esteem (recognition, prestige, status)
    • 1. Self-actualisation (find oneself)
  10. McGregor
    Theory of X & Y

    1. X – Authoritarian - Assumes – average person dislikes work, will avoid, must be forced, prefers direction & avoid responsibility, unambitious, needs security

    Y – Participative management style – Assumes- effort in work is natural, people will apply self-control & self-direction in pursuit of organisational objectives, people accept & seek responsibility, high imagination & creativity is widely distributed in population, the intellectual ability of the average person is only partly used
  11. Herzberg
    • Motivation / Hygiene Theory –
    • The factors which motivate people at work are different to & not simply opposite to factors which cause dissatisfaction.
    • 1. Motivators (Doing the job)– Achievement , recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement
    • 2. Hygiene (lead to dissatisfaction) (factors which define the job content) Needs – Status, security, company car, salary, work conditions, Policy relationship with supervision
  12. Likert
    • styles of management
    • 1. Exploitative Authoritative
    • 2. Benevolent Authoritative
    • 3. Consultative System
    • 4. Participative / Group (optimum effectiveness (likert))
  13. Levels & Types of management
    • Strategic - Management
    • Operational- doing - the workforce
  14. · Managerial skills
    • Systems approach
    • Educate managers to understand the overall system (they realise how actions in their department affect other units)
  15. Open & closed systems
    • – Open (depend on outside resources e.g. suppliers/ buyers.
    • Closed- E.g. clock – self-contained – minimal outside influence
  16. Large orgs are comprised of multiple systems (at least 5)
    • 1. Production – Transforms inputs into outputs
    • 2. Supportive – Acquisition, distribution

    • 3. Maintenance – Maintain the social environment
    • 4. Adaptive – problems & opportunities
    • 5. Management – Set goals & policies, allocate resources
  17. Modern approaches
    • Establish visions & goals
    • Understand the external environment
    • Develop a culture “the way we do things”
    • Develop & empower employees
    • Climate of excellence
    • Find competitive advantage
    • Manage change
    • New technology
    • Optimise organisational structures & systems
  18. Manager / leader qualities
    Thoughtfulness, impartial, Honest, Proficient, Person knowledge, Control, courage, Directness, Decisiveness, Dignity, People interest, Helpful
  19. Manager / Leader must
    • o
    • Feel responsible for resources
    • o Be out in front
    • o Keep his people in the picture
    • o Use appropriate behaviour
    • o High standards
    • o Self confidence
    • o Make a decision & live with it
    • o Self controlo Stamina
    • o Plan (Smart objectives )
    • o Monitor
    • o Feedback
    • o Interest
    • o Team orientation
  20. Leadership
    4 variables
    • Leader
    • Task
    • Group / individual
    • Environment
  21. Theories of leadership
    Trait – The “ideal approach” – Classical shool
  22. Theories of leadership
    • Style Theory –
    • People orientation v task,
    • Autoritarian v democratic,
    • McGregor, likert
  23. Theories of leadership
    • Contingency Approach –
    • Adaptive & pragmatic
  24. Theories of leadership
    Adair – Flexible leadership – Task (Objectives, planning, performance standards allocation of responsibilities) - Individual ( Coaching, counselling, motivation, development) - groups (Team building, motivation, communication, discipline
  25. Organisational Structures
    • Mintzbergs model
    • “the sum total of the ways in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks & then achieves co-ordination among them”
  26. Mintzbergs model
    6 components
    • Operating Core – People directly related to production (services & product)
    • Strategic Apex - serves the needs of people who control the organisation
    • Middle line – Managers who connect op core with strategic apex
    • Technostructure – Analysts who design, plan, change or train the op core
    • Support staff – specialists who provide support to org outside core activities
    • Ideology – traditions & beliefs that make org unique
  27. Mintzbergs model
    Linked by 4 flows
    • Authority
    • Work material
    • Information
    • Decision processes
  28. Mintzbergs model
    5 configurations
    • Simple Structure
    • Machine Bureaucracy·
    • Professional Bureaucracy·
    • Divisionalised form·
    • Adhocracy
  29. Roles & Responsibilities
    • o Managing Director, Construction Director, Finance Director, Commercial director
    • o Staff & line management, Contracts Manager, Design Manager, Site Manager
    • o Senior QS, Estimating Manager, Bid Manager, Planner, Quality Manager
    • o H & S Manager, Environmental Manager, Project Manager, Office Manager
  30. Conflict Management

    KEY:
    • Achievement of goals,
    • Maintain relationships
  31. Conflict Management

    STYLES:
    • Avoid Withdraw - Turtle
    • Dominate -Shark
    • Obliging - Teddy Bear
    • Compromise - Fox
    • Collaboration - Owl
  32. Conflict Management
    Normal Conflict Resolution
    • Time / cost / Finality / Public Private
    • § Avoid
    • § Negotiate
    • § Adjudication
    • § Arbitration
    • § Litigation
    • § Mediation (ADR)
    • § Conciliation (ADR)
  33. Decision making & problem solving
    Types of decision
    • § Strategic
    • § Operational
    • § Administrative
  34. Decision making & problem solving
    Decision Making Tools
    • § Operational research
    • § Network Analysis
    • § Risk Analysis
  35. Risk management
    • systematic approach to identify, assess & manage risks to enhance the outcome of a project.
    • No construction project is risk free – Each risk has to be owned by someone
  36. Risk management Strategy
    • o ELIMINATE
    • o REDUCE
    • o INSURE
    • o CONTAIN
    • TRANSFER
  37. Risk management Factors
    • o Consequences – what if risk occurs
    • o Impact – If it happens – TIME COST / QUALITY
    • o Likelihood – Qualitative or Quantative Assessment
    • o Severity – product of impact * likelihood
  38. Risk management
    5 steps
    • o Inception – Are risks acceptable?
    • o Strategy – Are conditions in place to proceed
    • o Feasibility – Are risks allocated properly?
    • o Pre-Construction – Are risks under control
    • o Use – Lessons for the future

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