EMBRYOLOGY

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cherubicsiren
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157366
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EMBRYOLOGY
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2012-06-05 13:05:46
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EMBRYOLOGY
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EMBRYOLOGY
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  1. which embryologic structure of the heart gives rise to the following adult structure?

    1. Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
    2. Coronary Sinus
    3. SVC
    • 1. Truncus arteroisus
    • 2. Left Horn of Sinus Venosus
    • 3. Right Cardinal Veins
  2. which embryologic structure of the heart gives rise to the following adult structure?

    1. Smooth parts of L and R ventricle
    2. Smooth parts of R atrium
    • 1. Bulbis cordis
    • 2. Right Horn of Sinus Venosus
  3. which embryologic structure of the heart gives rise to the following adult structure?

    1. Trabeculated L and R atrium
    2. Trabeculated parts of the L and R ventricle
    • 1. Primitive atria
    • 2. Primitive ventricle
  4. What structure divides the truncus areteriosus into the aortic and pulmonary trunks? What is the cellular origin of this structure?
    Spiral septum (aka aorticopulmonary septum)

    Origin = neural crest
  5. Which fetal vessel has the highest oxygenation?
    Umbilical veins
  6. What causes the ductus arteriosus to close?
    Indomethacin or increased O2 and decreased prostaglandins
  7. What causes the foramen ovale to close?
    Increased left atrium pressure due to the infant breathing
  8. this gene is found in the zone of depolarizing activity. forms limb buds. Defect -> holoprosencephaly, cyclopia
    Sonic Hedgehog gene
  9. this gene is responsible for lengthening limbs
    FGF gene
  10. this gene is mutated by excess vitamin A. defect can result in synpolydactyly.
    HOX gene
  11. Fetal Landmarks:

    1 week
    hCG secretion
  12. Fetal Landmarks:

    3 weeks
    • primitive streak
    • notochord
    • mesoderm
    • neural plate
  13. Fetal Landmarks:

    3-8 weeks
    • Neural Tube
    • Organogenesis
    • Extreme sensitivity to teratogens
  14. Fetal Landmarks:

    4 weeks
    • Heartbeat
    • Limb Buds
  15. Fetal Landmarks:

    10 weeks
    Genitalia have sex characteristics
  16. The Notochord induces the _ to become the _.
    Neuroectoderm -> neural plate
  17. The neural plate becomes the _ and the _.
    Neural tube and crest
  18. The notochord becomes the _.
    Nucleus Pulposus
  19. Rules of early development:

    Rule of 2's
    2nd week

    • 2 germ layers (epiblast and hypoblast)
    • 2 cavities (amniotic cavity and yolk sac)
    • 2 placental components (cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast
  20. Rules of early development:

    Rule of 3's
  21. 3rd week
  22. 3 germ layers
    • ecto
    • meso
    • endoderm
  23. Rules of early development:

    Rule of 4's
    4th week

    • 4 chambers of the heart
    • 4 limb buds
  24. Name the components of the surface ectoderm:
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Lens
    • oral epithelium
    • olfactory epithelium
    • sensory of ear
    • epidermis
    • anal canal below pectinate line
    • salivary, sweat and mammary glands
  25. Name the components of the neuroectoderm:
    • brain
    • posterior pituitary
    • CNS neurons
    • Glia
    • pineal gland
    • retina
    • spinal cord
  26. Name the components of the neural crest cells
    • ANS
    • dorsal root ganglia
    • CN's
    • celiac ganglion
    • melanocytes
    • chromaffin cells
    • parafollicular cells of thyroid
    • schwann cells
    • pia and arachnoid
    • skull bones
    • odontoblasts
    • aorticopulmonary septum
  27. Name the components of the endoderm
    • gut tube epithelium
    • anal canal above pectinate line
    • lungs
    • liver
    • pancrease
    • thymus
    • parathyroid
    • thyroid follicular cells
  28. Name the components of the mesoderm
    • muscle
    • bone
    • CT
    • serous linings
    • spleen
    • CV structures
    • lymphatics
    • blood
    • bladder
    • urethra
    • vagina
    • eustachian tubes
    • kidneys
    • adrenal cortex
    • skin dermis
    • testes
    • ovaries
  29. vertebral, cardiac, renal and limb defects, TE fistula and anal atresia are all defects of which germ layer?
    Mesoderm
  30. List the 15 most common teratogens and their defect
    • ACE inhibitors - renal damage
    • Alkylating agents - absence of digits
    • Aminoglycosides - Ototoxicity (A MEAN guy hit baby in ear!)
    • Carbamazapine - Neural tube defects
    • DES - vaginal clear cell carcinoma
    • Folate antagonists - Neural tube defects
    • Lithium - Ebsteins anomaly
    • Phenytoin - microcephaly, retardation, heart defects, facies
    • Tetracyclines - discolored teeth
    • Thalidomide - limb defects
    • Valproate - Neural tube defects
    • Warfarin - fetal hemorrhage, abortion, bone/ ophthalmic abn


    • Iodine - goiter or hypothyroidism
    • Maternal Diabetes - anal atresia, neural tube defect
    • Vitamin A - HOX gene expression altered
    • X rays - microcephaly and mental retardation
  31. Contrast cytotrophoblast with syncytiotrophoblast
    • Cyto - chorionic villi inner layer
    • Sync - secretes hCG
  32. What structures are in the umbilical cord? From what structure did they originate?
    • Umibilical vein - oxygenated blood to fetus
    • 2 Umbilical arteries - deoxygenated blood to mom

    Both are derived from the Allantois
  33. Describe the Urachal abnormalities
    • Patent urachus - urine from umbilicus
    • Vesicourachal diverticulum - bladder outpouching
  34. Describe the Vitelline duct abnormalities
    Vitelline fistula - meconium from umbilicus

    Meckel's Diverticulum - ectopic gastric mucosa
  35. Three failures of the truncus arteriosus - name defect and result
    • Failure to spiral - transposition of great vessels
    • AP septum failure - tetralogy of Fallot

    Persistant TA
  36. Fetal Erythopoiesis: name structures and approximate time frames
    • Yolk sac - 3-8 weeks
    • Liver - 6-30 weeks
    • Spleen 9-28 weeks
    • Bone Marrow - 28 weeks on
  37. Postnatal derivatives: the umbilical artery becomes what?
    mediaL umbilical ligament
  38. Postnatal derivatives: allantois becomes what?
    MediaN umbilical ligament
  39. Describe the fetal circulation
    Umbilical vein -> ductus venosus -> RA -> foramen ovale -> LA -> ductus arteriosus -> aorta -> internal iliac -> placenta
  40. Describe the deveoping brain: Forebrain -> Telencephalon
    • amygdala
    • hippocampus
    • basal ganglia
    • cerebral hemispheres
    • lateral ventricles
  41. Describe the deveoping brain: Forebrain -> Diencephalon
    • optic tracts
    • optic nerve
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • 3rd ventricle
  42. Describe the deveoping brain: Midbrain
    Mesencephalon->

    • midbrain
    • cerebral aqueduct
  43. Describe the deveoping brain: Hindbrain -> metencephalon
    • pons
    • top of 4th ventricle
    • cerebellum
  44. Describe the deveoping brain: Hindbrain -> myelencephalon
    • medulla
    • bottom of the 4th ventricle
  45. Describe the tests or signs associated with neural tube defects.
    • increased alpha fetoprotien in amniotic fluid and serum
    • spina bifida - tuft of hair, canal not closed, no herniation
    • meningiocele - meninges herniate
    • meningiomyelocele - meninges and SC herniate
  46. Anomalies of the forebrain
    • Anencephaly - no brain, polyhydramnios
    • Holoprosencephaly - cyclopia, Patau syndrome, FAS
  47. Posterior fossa malformations
    Chiari - Cerebellar tonsilar herniation though foramen magnum

    Dandy Walker - absent cerebellar vermis, enlarged 4th ventricle, hydrocephalus
  48. cape like bilateral loss of pain and temp
    enlargement at central canal
    Syringomyelia
  49. Describe the aortic arches
    • 1 - maxillary artery
    • 2 - stapedial and hyoid arteries
    • 3 - common carotid / ICA
    • 4 - aortic arch, R subclavian artery
    • 6 - pulmonary arteries, ductus arteriosus
  50. What is the order of the branchial apparatus? What comprises the clefts, arches and pouches?
    • Clefts - Ectoderm
    • Arches - Mesoderm
    • Pouches - Endoderm
  51. What is the difference between a branchial cleft cyst and a thyroglossal duct cyst?
    • Branchial Cleft - lateral, immobile
    • Thyroglossal - midline, mobile when swallowing
  52. Describe the Branchial arch derivatives
    • 1 - M&T structures (Muscles of mastication, Temporalis, Mandibular and Maxillary branches of the Trigeminal nerve, Tensor muscles, Mandibular ligament, Middle ear except stapes) - Treacher Collins abnormality (face abn)
    • 2 - S structures (Stapes, Stylohyoid, CN Seven, Smile)
    • 3 - Pharyngeal (styloPharyngeus, GlossoPharyngeal nerve)
    • 4-6 - Voice Box (Vagus, cricothyroid, swallow (superior laryngeal) and speak (recurrent laryngeal))
  53. Tongue innervation describe taste pain and motor
    • Anterior
    • Taste - VII
    • Pain - V3
    • Motor - XII

    • Posterior
    • Taste - IX
    • Pain - IX
    • Motor XII
  54. most common location of ectopic thyroid tissue
    base of the tongue
  55. describe the branchial pouch derivatives
    • 1 - ear
    • 2- palatine process
    • 3 - inferior parathyroids, thymus
    • 4 - superior parathyroids
  56. failure of the maxillary and medial nasal processes
    cleft lip
  57. failure of the lateral and medial palatine processes and the nasal septum
    cleft palate
  58. the uncinate process is formed from the:
    ventral bud
  59. the ureteropelvic junction failure results from:
    ureteric bud + metanephric mesenchymal -> results in hydronephrosis
  60. bilateral renal agenesis
    ureteric bud malformation
    oligohydramnios
    facial deformities
    pulmonary hypoplasia
    Potters Syndrome
  61. interior poles fuse, become trapped under the IMA
    normal function, associated with Turner Syndrome
    Horseshoe Kidney
  62. Genital embryology: paramesonephric ducts (Mullerian ducts)
    Female genitalia
  63. Genital embryology: mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts).
    Male genitalia
  64. What factor found on the SRY gene is responsible for male genital development? Where is it produced?
    Mullerian Inhibiting Factor -> from Sertoli Cells
  65. incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts
    bicornate uterus
  66. what is the fate of the gubernaculum in men and women?
    • men - anchors testes
    • women - ovarian/round ligament
  67. what is the fate of the processus vaginalis in men and women?
    • women - obliterated
    • men - tunica vaginalis

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