Grade 8 Science
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What are the changing stages in water that skip a step?
- Deposition = When water vapour turns right into a solid
- Sublimation = When frozen water turns right into water vapour
How does the water cycle work?
- Water storage in oceans
- Condensation into clouds
- Water Storage in atmosphere
- Water Storage in Ice and Snow
- Water storage in ground
- Water storage in lakes
- Run-off into oceans
What is the term for how much salt is dissolved in water?
How much saltier is the ocean than fresh water?
What is the average salinity in all the world's oceans?
35 parts per thousand
What are the most common dissolved solids in the world's oceans?
Sodium (Na+) and Chloride (Cl-). Together, they make Sodium Chloride (NaCl) or salt.
What are the rest of the dissolved solids in ocean water (besides Sodium Chloride)?
Magnesium, Sulfate, Calcium, Potassium.
Anything with mass and volume
Amount of matter in something
Particle Model of Matter
- 1. All matter is made of small particles
- 2. There are spaces between the particles
- 3. Gasses have more spaces between the particles than solids
- 4. Particles are always moving
- 5. Particles are attracted to eachother
Energy of motion, because all particles are always moving, they have kinetic energy.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
- 1. All matter is made up of atoms and molecules
- 2. There is empty space between the particles
- 3. The particles are constantly moving and collide with eachother
- - Solids: Particles are tightly packed together. They just vibrate
- - Liquids: Particles of liquids are further apart. They slide past eachother
- - Gas: The particles are very far apart and bounce around quickly.
Energy in KMT
Makes particles move. The more energy, the faster they move and farther apart they get.
An increase in volume of something when its temperature is raised.
A decrease in volume when the temperature is lowered.
Amount of mass in a given volume.
(mass over volume)
Units of density
Fluids: g/ml Solids: g/cm3
A push or pull that acts on an object anything that changes the motion or shape of an object.
Amount of force on an object due to gravity
Can only affect an object that they touch. Ex: Tension, elastic, friction
Non-touching forces. Gravity, electrostatic, magnetic.
The measuring unit for force.
Amount of force in a given area. P = f/a
A fluid's resistance to flow. Decreases as it's heated, increases as it's cooled.
Atttraction between molecules of two different substances between contact with eachother.
Attraction between molecules of the same subtance.
The pressure of the atmosphere. Air pressure becomes lesser when you get to a higher altitude because there's less air pushing on top of you
Tendancy for objects to float.
Force exerted by an enclosed non-moving fluid when pressure is applied to it. Ex: Squeezing a water balloon, having it break, it spraying it everywhere.
A force exerted by a fluid in motion. Ex: power washer putting on wood
Hydraulic multiplication calculation
- weight divided by area = psi
- psi x area = final force
Pneaumatics use gas instead of water.
What percent of the earth is covered in water?
- Underground water, usually contained in rock.
A large natural or artificial lake or pond, used to store water for human use.
A large block or sheet of ice that slowly flow downfill. It forms by snow falling that doesn't completely melt in the summer and snow keeps falling on top of it, compressing the snow into hard ice.
Massive glaciers that cover large areas of land. The two largest are in Greenland and Antarctica.
Glaciers in mountains formed by the high altitude
When a glacier slides downhill but reaches an altitude low enough that it melts faster than it slides downhill, it begins to recide at the bottom.
The process of breaking down rocks into sediment
Breaking down the rocks by physical means (glaciers, sandy wind, plants, ice, water)
The rocks break down by a chemical reaction (acid rain)
Sediment get removed in a process called erosion.
Depositing sediment in a place. This can create landforms.
An area with many sinkholes
Agents of erosion
Water, glaciers, wind, gravity.
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