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1. Which cranial nerve provides SA fibers to the superior nasopharynx?
2. Which cranial nerve provides VA fibers to the inferior nasopharynx?
3. Which cranial nerve supplies VA fibers to the oropharynx?
4. Which cranial nerve supplies VA fibers to the laryngopharynx?
5. Which cranial nerve supplies the VE-para/pre fibers to the superior pharynx?
pharyngeal -PPG (greater petrosal, CN VII)
6. Which cranial nerve supplies the VE-para/pre fibers to the oro- and laryngopharynx?
1. What is the principle muscle of the lip? What cranial nerve innervates this muscle?
orbicularis oris (CN VII)
2. Which arteries supply the lips?
superior & inferior labial arteries (branches of the facial a.).
3. Which nerves supply the lips?
infraoribital (upper lip) and mental nerves (lower lip).
4. What is the vestibule?
slit-like space between the lips/cheeks superficially and teeth/gingivae (gums) deeply.
5. What is the principle muscle of the cheek? Which cranial nerve innervates this muscle?
buccinator (CN VII)
6. What is the parotid papilla and where is it located?
parotid duct opening opposite 2nd maxillary molar
7. Sensory (SA) innervation to the cheek is supplied by which nerve?
long buccal (V3)
8. What is another word for “gingivae”?
9. Where is the oral cavity proper?
limited laterally and in front by alveolar arches and the teeth and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx
10. What are the two basic parts of the palate?
the roof of the mouth and consists of the hard and soft palate.
11. Which anatomical regions are superior to the palate?
palate separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavities and the nasopharynx
12. Which two bones form the hard palate?
palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones
13. What does the incisive foramen transmit (what goes through it)?
nasopalatine nerves and septal br. of the sphenopalatine artery (which anastomosis with the greater palatine a.)
14. What do the greater and lesser palatine foramina transmit?
- greater palatine foramen transmits the greater palatine nerve and vessels to the hard palate.
- lesser palatine foramen (they may be multiple on each side) transmits the lesser palatine nerve and vessels to the soft palate.
15. What glands are immediately deep to the mucosa of the palate? How are these glands innervated?
Deep to the mucosa, there are mucus-secreting palatine glands. These glands are innervated by VE-para/post fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion carried by the greater palatine nerve
16. What is the action of the uvula?
principle action of the soft palate is to close off the nasopharynx in swallowing, in suckling and during oral speech.
17. What are the anterior and posterior pillars and what is located between them?
- anterior pillar: palatoglossal arch or fold – from the soft palate to the lateral margin of the tongue.
- posterior pillar: palatopharyngeal arch or fold – from the soft palate to the side of the pharynx.
- palatine tonsil is located between the two arches or pillars
18. What is the fauces?
aperature by which the mouth communicates with the oropharynx
19. Name the 5 muscles of the palate and give their innervation?
- tensor veli palatini (V3)
- levator veli palatini (XI via X)
- palatoglossus (XI via X)
- palatopharyngeus (XI via X)
- musculus uvulae (XI via X)
20. Which palatal muscle tenses the soft palate? Which one elevates it? Which one elevates the pharynx? Which one depresses the soft palate and raises the posterior aspect of the tongue?
- tenses: tensor veli palatini (V3)
- elevate: levator veli palatini
- elevate pharynx: palatopharyngeus
- depress soft palate and raise tongue: palatoglossus
21. Which nerves supply SA fibers to the gingivae & mucosa of the hard palate?
greater palatine & nasopalatine nerves (SA from V2)
22. Which nerve supplies SA fibers to the soft palate?
lesser palatine nerve (SA fibers are from V2).
23. What are all the fiber types carried by the greater and lesser palatine nerves?
SA, VE-para/post, VE-sym/post
24. What is the origin of the greater and lesser palatine arteries?
descending palatine artery (which is a branch of the 3rd part of the maxillary a.).
25. The dorsum of the tongue is divided into what two basic parts?
oral part (anterior 2/3rd of the tongue) and pharyngeal part (posterior 1/3rd of the tongue
26. What landmarks separate the anterior 2/3rd from the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue?
sulcus terminalis – whose apex projects posteriorly and ends in a median pit called the foramen cecum
27. Name the different kinds of papillae on the oral part of the tongue and indicate which ones have taste buds.
- filiform, fungiform, valate and folliate.
- The vallate (a.k.a. “circumvallate”), foliate, and fungiform papillae contain taste buds.
- The filiform papillae contain sensory nerve endings that are sensitive to touch.
28. What is the name of the lymphoidal tissue on the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue?
pharyngeal part of the tongue is thick and contains large a collection of lymphatic nodules forming the lingual tonsils
29. Name the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue and in each case, give the attachment which indicates that this is an extrinsic muscle.
- hyoglossus, styloglossus, and genioglossus
- Extrinsic muscles suspend the tongue from the mandible, the styloid process of the temporal bone, and the hyoid bone.
30. All 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue are innervated by which cranial nerve?
31. Which “glossal” muscle is better considered as a muscle of the soft palate and not a muscle of the tongue? And what is its innervation?
palatoglossus (considered previously) is better thought of as a muscle of the soft palate and not a tongue muscle
32. Which extrinsic muscle of the tongue protrudes the tongue? Which one retracts it? Which one depresses it?
- genioglossus: protrude & depress
- hyoglossus: depress
- styloglossus: retract, curl up side
33. From superior to deep (or inferior to superior), what is the relationship of the genioglossus, geniohyoid, and myloyoid muscles?
the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and genioglossus
34. Although we cannot see them easily, name the 3 intrinsic muscles of the tongue. What is the general function of these muscles?
- main function is to change the shape of the tongue. They include:
- (1) superior & inferior longitudinal muscles
- (2) transverse muscles
- (3) vertical muscles
35. What is the principle artery to the tongue? What is its relationship to the hyoglossus? And what are its main branches?
- lingual (ECA)
- ascends and turns forward deep tohyoglossus -> deep lingual artery.
- dorsal lingual, sublingual, and deep lingual arteries.
36. Which veins allow for quick absorption of medications under the tongue?
deep lingual veins
37. Which 5 cranial nerves are involved in the innervation (both motor and sensory) to the tongue? Indicate which type of fibers they contribute.
- The innervation of the tongue involves 5 cranial nerves.
- The anterior 2/3rd of the tongue receives SA fibers from CN V3 (lingual n.) and SS/taste fibers from CN VII (via chorda typani fibers).
- The posterior 1/3rd of the tongue receives VA & SS/taste fibers from CN IX. CN X also supplies VA & SS/taste fibers to some areas at the base of the tongue, vallecula, and anterior epiglottis.
- CN XII provides SE (motor) innervation to all 3 tongue muscles.
38. Lymph from the posterior 1/3rd and medial aspect of the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue drain into which group of lymph nodes?
39. Lymph from the lateral sides of the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue drains into which nodes?
40. Lymph from the apex of the tongue drains into which nodes?
What is the vallecula?
- The posterior 1/3rd of the tongue (also called the base or root) is connected to the epiglottis via 3 folds: the median glossoepiglottic fold, and 2 lateral glossoepiglottic folds.
- Between the lateral and median glossoepiglottic folds is the vallecula.
41. What is the sublingual caruncle?
On the floor of the mouth, the median fold forms the frenulum of the tongue, on either side of which lies the sublingual caruncle (the opening of the duct of the submandibular gland).
42. Which muscle forms the inferior aspect of the floor of the mouth?
43. What is the relationship of the geniohyoid to the mylohyoid?
superior surface of mylohyoid are the geniohyoid muscles.
44. The submandibular gland has a superior and deep part. Which part is in the floor of the mouth? Which part gives rise to the submandibular duct?
- deep process of the submandibular gland can be seen here, superior to the mylohyoid and giving rise to the submandibular duct.
- Note how the lingual nerve passes from lateral to medial, under the submandibular duct.
- The sublingual gland can also be seen.
45. What is the relationship of the lingual nerve to the submandibular duct?
the lingual nerve passes from lateral to medial, under the submandibular duct.
46. How does the sublingual gland deliver saliva to the oral cavity?
8-20 ducts which open separately into the mouth on the elevated crest of mucous membrane called the plica sublingualis (sublingual fold).
47. What is the function of saliva?
clear, tasteless, odorless viscid fluid secreted by these glands and the mucous glands of the oral cavity. It keeps the mucous membrane of the mouth moist, lubricates the food during mastication, and begins the digestion of starches
48. Describe the innervation of the maxillary teeth? Describe the innervation of the mandibular teeth?
SA fibers of the superior alveolar nerves (posterior, middle, and anterior) which are direct or indirect branches of CN V2. The mandibular teeth are innervated by SA fibers of the inferior alveolar nerves (V3 br).
39. Which nerves innervate the palatine gingivae of the maxillary teeth?
greater palatine nerve (premolar & molar gingivae) and nasopalatine nerve (incisor gingivae).
40. Which nerves innervate the buccal and labial gingivae of the maxillary teeth?
superior alveolar nerves (anterior, middle, and posterior).
41. Which nerve innervates the buccal gingivae of the mandibular teeth?
the long buccal nerve (V3)
42. Which nerve innervates the lingual gingivae of the mandibular teeth?
the lingual nerve (V3)
42. Which nerve innervates the labial gingivae of the mandibular incisors?
incisive br. of the inferior alveolar nerve.
43. Which of the superior alveolar nerves is sometimes not present in people?
The middle superior alveolar (MSA)