Patho & Pharmo Wk 9 Pulmonary Disorders and their treatment
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Why during the respiratory function is one of the primary
functions gas exchange?
During gas exchange O2 uptake and CO2 removal is carried out by the right amount of ventilation and lung perfusion (BF).
Name a negative effect of a disruption to the respiratory
- Hypoxia – Reduced O2 in the blood
- Hypercapnia – Increased CO2 in the blood
I am fluid accumulation in the pleural space therefore
preventing full lung inflation. I can then cause hypoxemia and dyspnoea. The inflammation process has started which cause pain. What am I?
What is the difference between Transudate and Exudate fluid?
- Transudate fluid - is clear edema fluid
- Exudate fluid – contains protein and inflammatory cells
If blood was to escape into the pleural space due to injury,
what is the correct term for this?
Hemothorax – Hemo (blood) thorax (Chest cavity)
I can be classed as spontaneous or traumatic. I involve the
introduction of air into the pleural space. What am I?
Pneumothorax – Pneumo (the presence of air or gas) thorax (Chest cavity)
I am caused when the airway is obstructed therefore causing
incomplete lung expansion. What am I?
Atelectasis – Atel (imperfect or incomplete development)
Name the 4 chronic non-revisable progressive conditions of
obstructive airway disorders?
- Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchi caused by virus or bacteria
- Emphysema – Air in the tissues reducing surface area for gas exchange
- Brochiectasis –Pus formed on the widened bronchi, constant
- AB to deal with infection. Physio to encourage drain sputum
- Cystic Fibrosis – Cystic (Relating to or characterised by
- cysts. Production of thick mucus)
I occur during bronchospasm and inflammation. I am acute. I am a reversible airway obstruction. What am I?
Name the 2 types of Asthma
- Extrinsic – Type 1 hypersensitivity is the most common form.
- Intrinsic – Pathogenesis inflammation, maybe associated with viral respiratory infections
Name the pharmacological treatment for Asthma?
- Anti inflammatory – Preventers include glucocortides -
- Beclomethasone (inhaled) Prednisone (Oral)
- Bronchodilators – Relievers include Albuterol (Venolin),
- Salmeterol (Serevent)
How much medication reaches the required area
whilst using a spacer
For Asthma to be classified by frequency of intermittent,
mild, moderate or severe and a treatment prescribed, what are the occurrences. Match them up?
- <2 d /wk
- > 2 d /wk but < 7 d /wk
- Through the day
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
- A/ A Autosomal recessive condition
- B/ Can it involve excess secretion of viscous fluid
- C/ It affects the epithelial glands in respiratory,
- gastrointestinal & genito-urinary tracts
- D/ All of the above
I am a Hyper-secretion of bronchial mucous. I have a
current/recurrent productive cough persisting for more than 3 months in at least 2 successive years. What am I?
I am a disease that is affected by smoking. I affect the distal to terminal bronchi. The effect I have on the lungs is a loss of elastic in the tissues that reduces the ability of the lungs to recoil during expiration therefore meaning that accessory respiratory muscles are recruited. What disease am I?
What is the difference between Obstructive Airway Disorders and Chronic Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases?
- Obstructive Airway Disorders are about expiration where as
- Chronic Restrictive Pulmonary Disease are about inflation. CRPD occurs at the alveolar level not the bronchi.
Name some of the CF of restrictive disorders?
- Dyspnoea – Laboured or difficulty breathing
- Tachypnoea – Rapid breathing
- Cyanosis – A bluish discolouration to the skin and mucus membrane due to insufficient O2 in the arterial blood
Name the 3 perfusion disorders?
- Pulmonary embolism – Arterial occlusion reflex vaso-constriction and broncho-constriction shutting of air away from poorly perfused bronchi. Right heart failure
- Pulmonary Hypertension - Raised blood pressure within the vessels supplying the lung. Left heart failure is also frequently responsible.
- Pulmonary oedema – Is the most dramatic symptoms of Acute Heart Failure Syndrome (AHFS) it is life-threatening condition which capillary fluid moves into the alveoli. Causing lung stiffness making lung expansion more difficult.
I am epithelial cell injury and increasing pulmonary capillary permeability the accumulation of fluid in the alveolus and inactivation of surfactant decreasing gas diffusion therefore increasing the amount of effort breathing showing marked hypoxemia. What am I?
Acute lung injury / respiratory distress
I am a disorder that involves inflammation of the alveoli, intestinal tissue and the bronchioles of the lungs. I become filled with fluid therefore conductive to the proliferation of the infective pathogens. What am I?
Name some of the clinical manifestations of pneumonia?
- Rusty sputum
- Rapid shallow breathing - Tachypnoea
- Cyanosis – Bluish discolouration to the skin and mucus
- Pleurisy – Inflammation of the pleural lining of the lungs
Describe what happens during respiratory failure?
- Decreased ventilation and gas exchange
- Causing Hypoxemia
- Metabolic acidosis – increasing HR & BP
- Hypercapnia - (the presence in the blood of abnormally high concentration of CO2) causing respiratory acidosis and renal compensation.
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