PSY 430 exam 2 - CH3

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  1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    made of genes

    the molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
  2. Chromosome
    made of DNA

    One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes
  3. Gene
    a section of a chromosome and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals that are instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins
  4. Allele
    variations of a gene for a particular trait
  5. Genome
    the full set of genes that are the instuctions to make an individual member of a certain species
  6. Gamete
    a reproductive cell

    a sperm or ovum
  7. Zygote
    the single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum
  8. Genotype
    an organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential
  9. 23rd Pair
    the chromosome pair that determines the zygote's (person's) sex

    AKA: the Sex Chromosomes
  10. Autosomes
    other 22 pairs of chromosomes (excludes the 23rd pair)
  11. XX
    a 23rd chromosome pair that consists of 2 X-shaped chromosomes, one each from the mother and the father. Zygote becomes a female
  12. XY
    a 23rd chromosome pair that consists of X-shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y-shaped chromosome from the father. Zygote becomes a male
  13. Monozygotic (MZ) Twins
    twins who originate from one zygote
  14. Dizygotic (DZ) Twins
    twins who are formed when 2 seperate ova are fertilized by 2 seperate sperm at roughly the same time

    AKA fraternal twins
  15. Infertility
    the inability to conceive after at least one year of trying
  16. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
    a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy
  17. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
    fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body (as in a glass labratory dish). The procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman's ovary.

    1/3 produce a pregnancy
  18. Phenotype
    the observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits
  19. Polygenic
    referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
  20. Stem Cell
    are able to produce any type of cell
  21. 8 cell stage
    stage where:

    • - differentiation occurs
    • - cells begin to be specialized
  22. Multifactorial
    referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental
  23. Human Genome Project
    an international effort to map the complete human genteic code.

    • - humans have fewer than 100k genes
    • - not easy to find where one gene begins and another one ends
    • - there is similarity of the genes of all living things
  24. Additive Gene
    a gene that has several alleles, each of which contributes to the final phenotype (i.e. skin color or height)
  25. Dominant - Recessive Pattern
    the interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele (the dominant gene) more than that of the other (the recessive gene)
  26. Carrier
    a person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype.
  27. X-Linked
    referring to a gene carried on the x chromosome
  28. Heritability
    relative influence of genetics

    a statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes
  29. Mosaicism
    a condition in which an organism has a mixture of cells, some normal and some with an odd number of chromosomes or a series of missing genes
  30. age 8
    children see better each year until age ___
  31. 2 feet
    newborns cannot focus more than __ ft
  32. Myopia

    - developed by adolescents when their eyeball shape changes
  33. Down Syndrome
    a condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st position

    AKA trisomy-21

    - adults age faster (aging starts around 30)
  34. Turner's Syndrome
    only 1 X and no Y

    • odd # of X chromosomes impairs:
    • - Cognition
    • - Psychosocial Development
    • - Sexual Maturation
  35. Klinefelter's Syndrome
    2 X and 1 Y chromosome

    • - usually seem normal until puberty
    • - sexual maturation impaired
  36. Fragile X Syndrome
    a genetic disorder in which part of the x chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules.

    • - inherited mental retardation
    • - emotional problems
    • - poor social skills
  37. autosomes
    most recessive disorders are on ___ that are NOT X-linked
  38. Genetic Counseling
    conulation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, inc. harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive
  39. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    a genetic disorder in which a child's body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine.

    The resulting buildup of phenylalanine in body fluids causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms
  40. Hemophelia
    bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot
  41. Sickle Cell Anemia
    disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape
  42. Tay-Sachs
    disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A, a protein that helps break down a chemical found in nerve tissue called gangliosides
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PSY 430 exam 2 - CH3
CH 3: Theories of Development
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