Orgo Chemistry

The flashcards below were created by user toribloom on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. The dissociation of a molecule into two neutral fragments.
    • Homolytic
    • Heterolytic
  2. An organic reaction in which the breaking of bonds leads to the formation of ion pairs.
    • Heterolytic
    • Homolytic
  3. What is a Nucleophile?
    "nucleus loving" which describes the tendency of an electron rich species to be attracted to the positive nuclear charge of an electron poor species, the electrophile .
  4. The more available the electrons the more nucleophilic system.
    True
  5. Nucleophilicity follows the same rules as Electronegativity? True/False
    False, Within a group in the periodic table, increasing polarisation of the nucleophile as you go down a group enhances the ability to form the new C-X bond and increases the nucleophilicity, so I- > Br- > Cl- > F-. The electron density of larger atoms is more readily distorted i.e. polarised, since the electrons are further from the nucleus.
  6. Acidity increases down a group. True/False
    True
  7. A Lewis _____ accepts an electron pair.
    Acid
  8. A Lewis ____ donates an electron pair.
    Base
  9. A ______ base donates an electron pair.
    Lewis
  10. A _____ acid accepts an electron pair.
    Lewis
  11. A Bronsted _______ donates a proton.
    Acid
  12. A Bronsted _____ accepts a proton.
    Base
  13. A ________ is a Lewis Base that donates an electron pair to an atom other than a Hydrogen.
    Nucleophile
  14. Image Upload
    ............^...............^
    Lewis base....... Lewis acid
    Bronsted base... Bronsted Base
    Nucleophile....... Nucleophile
    Image Upload
  15. Image Upload
    ............^...............^
    Lewis base....... Lewis acid
    Bronsted base... Bronsted Base
    ucleophile....... Nucleophile
    Image Upload
  16. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  17. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  18. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  19. Rate of reaction for SN1?
    • SN1 reaction is the same as SN2 except its a unimolecular, so it only depends on the concentration of nucleophile (weak nucleophile as protic solvent ex. MeOH)
    • Thus, in SN2 reaction, if you up the concentration of substrate or nucleophile, or both, the rate will go up. And in an SN1 reaction, if you up the concentration of the substrate, then ONLY the rate will go up; the concentration of the nucleophile doesn't matter. In this sense you can have a million molecules of nucleophile but 10 molecules of substrate, it will only go as fast as those ten molecules can react.
  20. What is the SN2 rate of reaction?
    SN2 means a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction. The number 2 means that the rate law is dependant on two things. Since the reaction itself occurs in one step, the rate is:

    rate = k x [Substrate]*[Nucleophile]

    which means an arbitrary rate constant k times the concentration of substrate (alkyl halide, generally) times the concentration of nucleophile (which is strong, nucleophilic in a aprotic solvent)
  21. Image Upload
  22. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  23. What is an a-elimination?
    A reaction in which both the groups or atoms are removed from the same carbon of the molecule is called α-elimination reaction.
  24. What is a b-elimination?
    A reaction in which functional group (i.e., leaving group) is removed from α-carbon and other group (Generally hydrogen atom) from the β-carbon is called β-elimination reaction. In this reaction there is loss of two σ bonds and gain of one π bond. Product of the reaction is generally less stable than the reactant.
  25. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  26. Image Upload
    Stable to Least stable or Least stable to stable?
    Image Upload
  27. Image Upload

    Image Upload
    Dieletics of < 15 are nonpolar.
    Image Upload
  28. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  29. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  30. Image Upload
    What is this molecule?
    Ethanol or Ethyl Alcohol
  31. What does protic mean?
    a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group)
  32. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  33. An aprotic solvent favors which kind(s) of reactions?
    SN2 and E2
  34. What is a protic solvent?
    It has hydrogens that can easily be taken. Hydrogens bonded to an oxygen fore example. Not a carbon hydrogen bond.
  35. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  36. Image Upload

    Although hydroxide ion promotes a bimolecular reaction, the tertiary alkyl halide won't undergo an SN2 mechanism because of the steric hindrance imposed by the three alkyl groups. Keep in mind Zaitsev's rule when determining the major elimination product.
    Image Upload
  37. A beta carbon is a carbon to the left or right of the alpha carbon.

    True/false
    True
  38. What is Zaitsev's rule?
    Image Upload

    • It will take the proton with the fewer hydrogens.
    • Hyperconjugation also says that the more stable double bond will be formed, so the carbon that is attached to more carbons will be more stable than the one with hydrogens.
  39. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  40. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  41. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  42. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  43. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  44. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  45. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  46. Image Upload
    Image Upload
  47. Image Upload
    Heptane
  48. Image Upload
    Hexane
  49. Image Upload
    Pentane
  50. Image Upload
    Methane
Author:
toribloom
ID:
157492
Card Set:
Orgo Chemistry
Updated:
2012-06-11 19:20:04
Tags:
chem
Folders:

Description:
o chem usm
Show Answers: