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Describe an Afferent neuron
- Sensory neurons that detect stimuli (change) and send it towards the intergrating center.
- Usually located within the CNS
Describe an integrative neuron:
- Integrative neurons analyze the sensory information, store information, and decide how to react to information.
- Located totally inside the CNS.
Describe an Effernt neuron:
Motor neurons that send information/ instructions from the intergration center to the periphery and control effectors (usually another neuron, muscle, or glad.)
What are the two portions of the peripheral nervous system?
- Somatic nervous system
- Autonomic nervous system
What are somatic sensory afferent neurons?
Neurons that conduct action potentials from sensory receptors from muscle spindle receptors in the skeletal muscles, the golgi tendon receptors in the tendons and various mechanical receptors, thermal receptors, and pain receptors in the skin to the CNS.
What are somatic motor efferent neurons?
Neurons that conduct action potentials from the CNS to conrtol skeletal muscles for voluntary control.
What are Autonomic motor efferent neurons?
Send instructions from the CNS to the smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, adipose tissue and exocrine and endocrine glands for involuntary, unconscious control!
What are Autonomic sensory afferent neurons?
that convey action potentials from various types of receptors in the smooth and cardiac muscles to the CNS.
List the functions of the Glial cells:
What are the two types of Glial cells we are focusing on?
- Schwann Cells (Peripherial Nervous System)
- Oligodendrocytes (Centeral Nervous System)
What do both Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes do?
Create myelin sheaths to insulate axons.
Regions between myelin sheaths are known as_______.
Nodes of Ranvier
What causes a Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (EPSP)?
- When a stimulus causes a positive ion to ENTER the cell
- Depolarizes the membrane and brings it closer to threshold
What is a Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential?
- When a stimulus causes a positive ion to EXIT the cell.
- Graded potential that hyperpolarizes the membrane and takes it farther away from threshold.
Compare the differences of a graded potential verses an action potential.
- Graded potentials have various types of stimuli & gated channels. Action potentials only one stimuli that activates voltage gated channels.
- Graded potentials vary in shape and size, but action potentials are static (always the same).
- Action potentials do not decrease in size as they travel along the axon, but graded potentials diminish as they space out through the dendrite.
- Graded potentials occur in the dendrite and cell body, but action potentials only occur in the axon.
Which voltage gated channels open first?
Na+ gated channels that allow Na+ into the cell, which then close and are followed by K+ channels which release K+ out of the cell. This causes repolarization.