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quantitative data; having values of single or multiple digits, sometimes including decimal points, and composed of only numbers; can be positive (if not present it's assumed) or negative
alphanumeric or string variables
in data processing, the entry of values that contain symbols or letters and may include digits.
string variables may be letters or words that represent variable values such as male/female or the names of states or citites
ie date --> MM-DD-YYYY
when the research design includes group comparisons, each subject's group assignment must be identified by a group code for the grouping variable.; to code catergorical variables (which is made before the data is collected). These codes are used on data collection forms to expedite transfer of data to the computer.
record or case
each row of data, representing a single subject's scores; composed of several fields of data
each individual score, or variable value; described according to their width, that is, the number of digits or spaces needed for the maximum possible value
described in a format --> Fw.d
used when it's confusing to reat a printout of an analysis of many abbreviations. To help read the output, most programs allow the use of labels for variable names and for category value codes. Thea llow the reseracher to customize in a way to help interpretation.
used to organize data and to catalog the order of entry of all variables. Variable names are listed with their abbreviations and codes are listed to identify their values.
ie pg 733 figure 30.2
the process in which the data are entered in the the computer, and before the analyes are run, the data should be checkeg against the raw data to be sure that there are no descrepancies or coding errors. It's done to ensure validity.
data modification or transformation
used to create new variables or to assign new codes to existing variables; ie if we want to get the mean of several trials...a new variable is formed in doing so and needs a new variable name.
(glossary answer) mathematical conversion of a distribution to a different scale by a constant (such as square root or log) to change the shape or variance characteristics of the distribution
variables require arithmetic operation on the data; symbols are the operators to creat expressions
- + (to add; A+B)
- - (subtract; A-B)
- / (divide)
- * (multiply)
- ** (exponent)
an expression that contains on operator
i.e A + B
when more than one operator is used in an expression
To recode variables by specifying relationships between them.
- Can be specified as symbols or letter combinations:
- (more on page 736)
- = EQ equal to
- > GT greater than
usually with an "IF" statement.... IF AGE <30, AGEGRP =1