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2012-06-08 13:27:57

history midterm
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  1. Nicolas Copernicus
    A Polish clergyman with an interest in astronomy, astology, mathematics and church law. He sought a simpler mathematical formulation to explain how the universe operates. He concluded how Earth moves around the Sun and the Earth is not the the centar of the universe.
  2. James I
    He was the King of Scottland first and after that he became the king of England as well. He sponsored the translation of the Bible that was named after him: the Authorised King James Version. He was Calvnist yet he preferred Anglican Church. James was disinclined to compromise his theoretical notions of divine right monarchy. During his rule, the English colonies in North America grew.
  3. Galileo Galeili
    an Italian physicist, mathematician,astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to thetelescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.
  4. Sir Isaac Newton
    an English physicist,mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. He developed calculus and investigated the nature of light, he also formulated and mathematically discribed three laws of motion. he discovered gravitation. He beieved that everything in the universe consisted of only one thing, matter in motion.
  5. Oliver Cromwell
    was an English military and political leader who was part of the joint republican, military and parliamentarian effort that overthrew the Stuart monarchy as a result of the English Civil War, and was subsequently invited by his fellow leaders to assume a head of state role in 1653.
  6. John Locke
    the Father of Classical Liberalism,was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception
  7. Absolute monarchy
    Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state andhead of government; his or her powers are not limited by a constitution or by the law. it clamies complete political monarchy.
  8. King Louis XIV
    was a Bourbonmonarch who ruled as King of France. known as Louis the Great or the Sun King. During Louis's reign France was the leading European power he went in to three big wars that depleted the treasury. He built Versailles, 11 miles outside of Paris.
  9. Thomas Hobbes
    was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. He was one of the founders of modern political philosophy.[4] His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy.
  10. cottage industries
    Handicraft manufacturing usually organized by merchants and perforemed by rural people in their cottages.
  11. Rococo style
    A style of art developed from then baroque that originated in France during the 18th century that emphasized elaborate designs to produce a delicate effect.
  12. Adam Smith
    was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer ofpolitical economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenmen. The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. He argued that criminal laws and punishemnts like all other aspects of life, should incorporate reason and natural law. Criminal law should strive to deter crime and rehabilitate criminal rather than merely punish wrongdoers.
  13. Neoclassical style
    the name given to Westernmovements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism.
  14. Enlightenment
    18th century cultural movement based on the ideas of scientific revolution and that supported the notion that human reason determine understanding of the world and the rules of social life.
  15. Catherine I
    the second wife ofPeter I of Russia, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. Catherine was the first woman to rule Imperial Russia, opening the legal path for a century almost entirely dominated by women, including her daughter Elizabeth and Catherine the Great, all of whom continued Peter the Great's policies in modernizing Russia. Catherine was determined to reduce military expenditure. The resulting tax relief on the peasantry led to the reputation of Catherine I as a just and fair ruler.
  16. Seven Year War
    • The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines.
    • he war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain and the Bourbons (in Franceand Spain), resulting from overlapping interests in their colonial and trade empires.
  17. pietism
    an 18th cent. protestant movement stessing an emotion commitment to religion.
  18. Peace of Paris (1763)
    The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the Seven Years' War, known as theFrench and Indian War in the North American theatre. it gave control of canada and of france's holdings of east of Mississippi.
  19. Deism
    belief in a god who created the universe and its natural laws but does not intervene furtherl gained popularity during the enlightenment
  20. Philosophes
    The philosophes (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment.[1] Few were primarily philosophers; rather, philosophes were public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues.
  21. empricism
    the use of observation and experiments based on sensory evidence to come to ideas or conclusions.
  22. Enlightened absolutism
    Rule by a strong enlightened ruler applying enlightenment ideas to government.
  23. John Locke
    widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism,was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory
  24. Joseph II
    was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands. oseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes
  25. Estates General
    the legislature of france from the middle ages to 1789. each of the three estates- clergy, nobility and bourgeoisie- sent representatives.
  26. Fall of the Bastille
    the Bastille was used as a French state prison and a place of detention for important persons. On July 14, 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution, an armed mob of Parisians captured the fortress and released its prisoners, a dramatic action that came to symbolize the end of the ancien rgime. The Bastille was subsequently demolished by the Revolutionary government. Bastille Day (July 14) has been a French national holiday since 1880.
  27. Sans-culottes
    working class people of paris during the french revolution
  28. Parisian Women March on Versailles
    The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who were near rioting over the high price bread. they ransacked the city armory for weapons and marched to the royal palace atVersailles. they presented their requests to the king Louis XVI. the crowd compelled the king, his family, and the entire French Assembly to return with them to Paris.
  29. Jacobins
    a radical political organization or club during the french revolution.
  30. Reign of Terror
    the voilent period of the french revolution.
  31. Cahiers de doleances
    the list of public grievances sent to the french estates general.
  32. Tennis Court Oath
    oath taken by members of the french estates gerneral not to dissolve until they had created a constitution for france.
  33. Third Estate
    all people except the nobility and clergy, in early modern europian society.
  34. Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
    in french revolution, declaration of rights stressing libery, equality and fraternity.
  35. Levee en masse
    general call up of all men, women and children to serve the nation during the french revolution.
  36. Continental system
    Napoleon's policy of preventig trade between continetal eurpoe and great britain.
  37. Napoleon Bonaparte
    a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution. he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars. He established hegemony over most of continental Europe and sought to spread the ideals of the French Revolution, while consolidating an imperial monarchy. Due to his success in these wars, often against numerically superior enemies, he is generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time and his campaigns are studied at military academies throughout much of the world
  38. Jacques Necker
    finance minister of Louis XVI. he proposed financial and political reforms that included a limited constitutional monarchy. he was a part of french revolution.
  39. Prince Metternich
    Metternich was an Austrian foreign minister who was a major force at the Congress of Vienna. He attempted to reverse the ideals of the French revolution, nationalism and liberalism, as they threatened to destroy the Austrian Empire. He led what some have called the Age of Metternich (1815-1848). Ultimately, he was unable to stop the forces of nationalism and liberalism, and his system collapsed in 1848 when there were revolutions throughout Europe
  40. Marie Antoinette
    Queen of France.
  41. Friederick II
    He is best known as a brilliant military campaigner and organizer of Prussian armies. He became known as Frederick the Great. Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance.
  42. Quadruple Alliance
    austria, prussia, russia, france. in the years after the napoleonic wasrs to maintain the status qou.
  43. Viscount Castlereagh
    an Irish and British statesman. As British Foreign Secretary, from 1812 he was central to the management of the coalition that defeated Napoléon.
  44. Jacques Rousseau
    His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought. philosopher, writer, and composer. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club.
  45. Nationalism
    ideology stressing the importantion of national identity and the nation-state.
  46. Battle of Waterloo
    An Imperial French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by combined armies of the Seventh Coalition, under the command of the Duke of Wellington. The defeat at Waterloo ended his rule as Emperor of the French, marking the end of his Hundred Daysreturn from exile.
  47. Battle of Borodin
    was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia. involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded; Russian losses were also heavy. The state of exhaustion of the French forces and lack of information on the Russian Army's condition led Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of the forced pursuit that had marked other campaigns that he had conducted in the past.
  48. romanticism
    a cultural ideology during the first half of the 19th century stessing feelings over reason.
  49. Immanuel Kant
    is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy.
  50. Georg Hegel
    was aGerman philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism., he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other.
  51. Voltaire
    a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform. Voltaire was one of several Enlightenment figures.
  52. Scientific Revolution
    The new 16th and 17th century methods of investigation and discoveries about nature based on observation and reason rather then tradition and authority.
  53. Heliocentric model
    pertaining to the theory that the sun is the center of the universe
  54. philosophes
    leading french intellectualls of the enlightenment. public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas. hey strongly endorsed progress and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion and feudal institutions.
  55. Pietism
    an 18th cent. protestant movement stressing an emotional commitment to religion.
  56. Bastille
    the royal prison symbolizing the old regine that was destoryed in the french revolution.
  57. Napoleonic Code
    the code introduced in france by nalopeon bonararte. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified